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Jenkins A.L.,Risk Factor Modification Center | Morgan L.M.,University of Surrey | Bishop J.,University of Surrey | Jovanovski E.,Risk Factor Modification Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background/Objective: Addition of viscous fiber to foods has been shown to significantly reduce postprandial glucose excursions. However, palatability issues and the variability in effectiveness due to different methods of administration in food limits it use. This study explores the effectiveness of a viscous fiber blend (VFB) in lowering postprandial glycemia using different methods of incorporation.Methods: Two acute, randomized, controlled studies were undertaken: Study 1: Twelve healthy individuals (mean ± SD, age: 36 ± 13 years, body mass index [BMI]: 27 ± 4 kg/m2) consumed 8 different breakfasts. All meals consisted of 50 g of available carbohydrate from white bread (WB) and 10 g margarine. Zero, 1, 2, or 4 g of the VFB was baked into WB or mixed with the margarine. Study 2: Thirteen healthy individuals (mean ± SD, age: 39 ± 17 years, BMI: 25 ± 5 kg/m2) consumed 6 test meals, consisting of 50 g of available carbohydrate from WB. Six capsules containing either cornstarch or VFB were taken at 4 different time points during the glucose tolerance test.Results: Study 1: Irrespective of VFB dose, glucose levels were lower at 30 and 45 minutes when VFB was mixed into the margarine compared to the control (p < 0.05). Incremental areas under the curve were significantly lower compared to control when 4 g of VFB was mixed into the margarine. Study 2: There was no effect of the VFB on postprandial glucose levels when administered in capsules.After obtaining a fasting finger-prick blood sample, volunteers consumed the test meal over a 10-minute period. Additional blood samples were taken at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes from the start of the meal. For study 2, an additional fasting sample was obtained at −30 minutes.Conclusion: Incorporation of VFB into margarine was more effective in lowering postprandial glycemia than when the VFB was baked into bread and no effect when given in capsules. © 2014, © American College of Nutrition Published by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Jones P.J.H.,University of Manitoba | Senanayake V.K.,University of Manitoba | Pu S.,University of Manitoba | Jenkins D.J.A.,Risk Factor Modification Center | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background: It is well recognized that amounts of trans and saturated fats should be minimized in Western diets; however, considerable debate remains regarding optimal amounts of dietary n-9, n-6, and n-3 fatty acids. Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of varying n-9, n-6, and longer-chain n-3 fatty acid composition on markers of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Design: A randomized, double-blind, 5-period, crossover design was used. Each 4-wk treatment period was separated by 4-wk washout intervals. Volunteers with abdominal obesity consumed each of 5 identical weight-maintaining, fixed-composition diets with one of the following treatment oils (60 g/3000 kcal) in beverages: 1) conventional canola oil (Canola; n-9 rich), 2) high-oleic acid canola oil with docosahexaenoic acid (CanolaDHA; n-9 and n-3 rich), 3) a blend of corn and safflower oil (25:75) (CornSaff; n-6 rich), 4) a blend of flax and safflower oils (60:40) (FlaxSaff; n-6 and short-chain n-3 rich), or 5) high-oleic acid canola oil (CanolaOleic; highest in n-9). Results: One hundred thirty individuals completed the trial. At endpoint, total cholesterol (TC) was lowest after the FlaxSaff phase (P, 0.05 compared with Canola and CanolaDHA) and highest after the CanolaDHA phase (P < 0.05 compared with CornSaff, FlaxSaff, and CanolaOleic). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were highest, and triglycerides were lowest, after CanolaDHA (P < 0.05 compared with the other diets). All diets decreased TC and LDL cholesterol from baseline to treatment endpoint (P < 0.05). CanolaDHA was the only diet that increased HDL cholesterol from baseline (3.5 ± 1.8%; P < 0.05) and produced the greatest reduction in triglycerides (220.7 ± 3.8%; P < 0.001) and in systolic blood pressure (23.3 ± 0.8%; P < 0.001) compared with the other diets (P < 0.05). Percentage reductions in Framingham 10-y CHD risk scores (FRS) from baseline were greatest after CanolaDHA (219.0 6 3.1%; P < 0.001) than after other treatments (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Consumption of CanolaDHA, a novel DHA-rich canola oil, improves HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure, thereby reducing FRS compared with other oils varying in unsaturated fatty acid composition. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Spence J.D.,Robarts Research Institute | Jenkins D.J.A.,Risk Factor Modification Center | Davignon J.,Institute Of Recherches Cliniques Of Montreal
Canadian Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2010

A widespread misconception has been developing among the Canadian public and among physicians. It is increasingly believed that consumption of dietary cholesterol and egg yolks is harmless. There are good reasons for long-standing recommendations that dietary cholesterol should be limited to less than 200 mg/day; a single large egg yolk contains approximately 275 mg of cholesterol (more than a day's worth of cholesterol). Although some studies showed no harm from consumption of eggs in healthy people, this outcome may have been due to lack of power to detect clinically relevant increases in a low-risk population. Moreover, the same studies showed that among participants who became diabetic during observation, consumption of one egg a day doubled their risk compared with less than one egg a week. Diet is not just about fasting cholesterol; it is mainly about the postprandial effects of cholesterol, saturated fats, oxidative stress and inflammation. A misplaced focus on fasting lipids obscures three key issues. Dietary cholesterol increases the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation, increases postprandial lipemia and potentiates the adverse effects of dietary saturated fat. Dietary cholesterol, including egg yolks, is harmful to the arteries. Patients at risk of cardiovascular disease should limit their intake of cholesterol. Stopping the consumption of egg yolks after a stroke or myocardial infarction would be like quitting smoking after a diagnosis of lung cancer: a necessary action, but late. The evidence presented in the current review suggests that the widespread perception among the public and health care professionals that dietary cholesterol is benign is misplaced, and that improved education is needed to correct this misconception. ©2010 Pulsus Group Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Gat I.,ee Fertility Center | Gat I.,Sheba Medical Center | Blanco Mejia S.,Toronto West Fertility Center | Blanco Mejia S.,Risk Factor Modification Center | And 8 more authors.
Gynecological Endocrinology | Year: 2016

Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the combination of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) (D + C) with DHEA alone (D) in intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles among patients with decreased ovarian reserve. Methods: We retrospectively extracted data from patients charts treated by DHEA with/without CoQ10 during IUI or IVF between February 2006 and June 2014. Prestimulation parameters included age, BMI, day 3 FSH and antral follicular count (AFC). Ovarian response parameters included total gonadotropins dosage, peak serum estradiol, number of follicles > 16 mm and fertilization rate. Clinical outcomes included clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates. Results: Three hundred and thirty IUI cycles involved D + C compared with 467 cycles of D; 78 IVF cycles involved D + C and 175 D. In both IUI and IVF, AFC was higher with D + C compared with D (7.4 ± 5.7 versus 5.9 ± 4.7, 8.2 ± 6.3 versus 5.2 ± 5, respectively, p < 0.05). D + C resulted in a more follicles > 16 mm during IUI cycles (3.3 ± 2.3 versus 2.9 ± 2.2, respectively, p = 0.01), while lower mean total gonadotropin dosage was administered after D + C supplementation compared with D (3414 ± 1141 IUs versus 3877 ± 1143 IUs respectively, p = 0.032) in IVF cycles. Pregnancy and delivery rates were similar for both IUI and IVF. Conclusion: D + C significantly increases AFC and improves ovarian responsiveness during IUI and IVF without a difference in clinical outcome. © 2016 Taylor & Francis. Source

Sievenpiper J.L.,McMaster University | Sievenpiper J.L.,Risk Factor Modification Center | McDonald S.D.,McMaster University | Grey V.,McMaster University | And 3 more authors.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2012

A 1-step approach for gestational diabetes (GDM) screening using a 75. g-oral glucose tolerance test (75. g-OGTT) has been recommended. We undertook an audit (January 2007-June 2010) to assess adherence to an existing 2-step approach (50. g-glucose challenge test followed by a 75. g-OGTT). Adherence was sub-optimal. Overall follow-up was missed in 14.5% of those screened. Only 36% of those who met dysglycemia criteria for a follow-up 75. g-OGTT received the test as per step 2 of the protocol. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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