Risk Assessment Laboratory for Bee Products

Beijing, China

Risk Assessment Laboratory for Bee Products

Beijing, China
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Ji J.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Zheng L.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Zheng L.,Chongqing University of Technology | Yue J.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | And 9 more authors.
PeerJ | Year: 2017

Background. Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), as a key enzyme in the γaminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-glutamate to form GABA. This pathway has attracted much interest because of its roles in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, stress responses, and signaling in higher plants. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize genes encoding GADs from Caragana intermedia, an important nitrogen-fixing leguminous shrub. Methods. Two full-length cDNAs encoding GADs (designated as CiGAD1 and CiGAD2) were isolated and characterized. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to evaluate their structures and identities to each other and to homologs in other plants. Tissue expression analyses were conducted to evaluate their transcriptional responses to stress (NaCl, ZnSO4, CdCl2, high/low temperature, and dehydration) and exogenous abscisic acid. Results. The CiGADs contained the conserved PLP domain and calmodulin (CaM)- binding domain in the C-terminal region. The phylogenetic analysis showed that they were more closely related to the GADs of soybean, another legume, than to GADs of other model plants. According to Southern blotting analysis, CiGAD1 had one copy and CiGAD2-related genes were present as two copies in C. intermedia. In the tissue expression analyses, there were much higher transcript levels of CiGAD2 than CiGAD1 in bark, suggesting that CiGAD2 might play a role in secondary growth of woody plants. Several stress treatments (NaCl, ZnSO4, CdCl2, high/low temperature, and dehydration) significantly increased the transcript levels of both CiGADs, except for CiGAD2 under Cd stress. The CiGAD1 transcript levels strongly increased in response to Zn stress (74.3-fold increase in roots) and heat stress (218.1-fold increase in leaves). The transcript levels of both CiGADs significantly increased as GABA accumulated during a 24-h salt treatment. Abscisic acid was involved in regulating the expression of these two CiGADs under salt stress. Discussion. This study showed that two CiGADs cloned from C. intermedia are closely related to homologs in another legume, soybean. CiGAD2 expression was much higher than that of CiGAD1 in bark, indicating that CiGAD2 might participate in the process of secondary growth in woody plants. Multiple stresses, interestingly, showed that Zn and heat stresses had the strongest effects on CiGAD1 expression, suggesting that CiGAD1 plays important roles in the responses to Zn and heat stresses. Additionally, these two genes might be involved in ABA dependent pathway during stress. This result provides important information about the role of GADs in woody plants' responses to environmental stresses.

Zheng L.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Meng Y.,Agricultural University of Hebei | Ma J.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Zhao X.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | And 9 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Populus tomentosa (Chinese white poplar) is well adapted to various extreme environments, and is considered an important species to study the effects of salinity stress on poplar trees. To decipher the mechanism of poplar’s rapid response to short-term salinity stress, we firstly detected the changes in H2O2 and hormone, and then profiled the gene expression pattern of 10-week-old seedling roots treated with 200 mM NaCl for 0, 6, 12, and 24 h (h) by RNA-seq on the Illumina-Solexa platform. Physiological determination showed that the significant increase in H2O2 began at 6 h, while that in hormone ABA was at 24 h, under salt stress. Compared with controls (0 h), 3991, 4603, and 4903 genes were up regulated, and 1408, 2206, and 3461 genes were down regulated (adjusted P ≤ 0.05 and |log2Ratio|≥1) at 6, 12, and 24 h time points, respectively. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway annotation revealed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were highly enriched in hormone-and reactive oxygen species-related biological processes, including “response to oxidative stress or abiotic stimulus,” “peroxidase activity,” “regulation of transcription,” “hormone synthetic and metabolic process,” “hormone signal transduction,” “antioxidant activity,” and “transcription factor activity.” Moreover, K-means clustering demonstrated that DEGs (total RPKM value>12 from four time points) could be categorized into four kinds of expression trends: quick up/down over 6 or 12 h, and slow up/down over 24 h. Of these, DEGs involved in H2O2-and hormone-producing and signal-related genes were further enriched in this analysis, which indicated that the two kinds of small molecules, hormones and H2O2, play pivotal roles in the short-term salt stress response in poplar. This study provides a basis for future studies of the molecular adaptation of poplar and other tree species to salinity stress. © 2015 Zheng, Meng, Ma, Zhao, Cheng, Ji, Chang, Meng, Deng, Chen, Shi and Jiang.

Wu Z.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen L.,Risk Assessment Laboratory for Bee Products | Wu L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

The objective of this study is to test the feasibility of multi-isotopic and elemental analyses combined with chemometric techniques for differentiating the botanical origins of major honey products in China. The stable isotope and elemental compositions of 57 honey samples from four major floral origins in China (i.e., rape honey, acacia honey, vitex honey, and jujube honey) were analyzed using stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. The results showed that hydrogen and oxygen isotopes could be more suitable than the carbon isotope for discriminating the floral origins of major honeys in China. There were significant differences in the contents of most elements between or among different floral origins. The combination of IRMS and ICP-MS methods provides the most effective and accurate approach (in most cases close to 100% accuracy) for classifying Chinese honeys according to their floral origins. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Deng N.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Chang E.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Li M.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | Ji J.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | And 8 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

Gnetum is a small, unique group of Gnetophyta with a controversial phylogenetic position. Gnetum parvifolium is an important Chinese traditional medicinal plant, which is rich in bioactive compounds such as flavonoids and stilbenoids. These compounds provide significant medicinal effects, mostly as antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial agents. However, the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and regulation of these compounds in G. parvifolium are still unknown. In this study, we found that flavonoids and stilbene compounds accumulated at different levels in various tissues of G. parvifolium. We further obtained and analyzed massive sequence information from pooled samples of G. parvifolium by transcriptome sequencing, which generated 94,816 unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Functional annotation of all these unigenes revealed that many of them were associated with several important secondary metabolism pathways including flavonoids and stilbenoids. In particular, several candidate unigenes (PAL-, C4H-, 4CL-, and STS-like genes) involved in stilbenoids biosynthesis were highly expressed in leaves and mature fruits. Furthermore, high temperature and UV-C strongly induced the expression of these genes and enhanced stilbene production (i.e., resveratrol and piceatannol) in leaves of young seedlings. Our present transcriptomic and biochemical data on secondary metabolites in G. parvifolium should encourage further investigation on evolution, ecology, functional genomics, and breeding of this plant with strong pharmaceutical potential. © 2016 Deng, Chang, Li, Ji, Yao, Bartish, Liu, Ma, Chen, Jiang and Shi.

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