Rippe Lifestyle Institute

Shrewsbury, MA, United States

Rippe Lifestyle Institute

Shrewsbury, MA, United States
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Yu Z.,Pennsylvania State University | Yu Z.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute | Geary N.,ETH Zurich | Corwin R.L.,Pennsylvania State University
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2011

The individual roles of estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) in the control of food intake and body weight in ovariectomized (OVX) rats were investigated. Six groups of OVX Sprague-Dawley rats (n. = 9/group) were assigned to one of three 4-day cyclic hormone treatments: two groups were treated with E benzoate; two groups were treated with P; two groups were treated with both (EP). All rats had continuous access to chow and water throughout this 4-week study. One group of rats within each hormone treatment condition was fed chow ad libitum, and the second was subjected to a binge schedule: chow ad libitum plus 1-h access to an optional fat source on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. A seventh OVX group (n. = 8) received the oil vehicle and chow. This group was included to monitor body weight and to verify hormone efficacy. The main findings were: (1) relative to rats receiving only P, E alone or EP attenuated 24-h chow intake tonically and cyclically, i.e. intake on Day 4, which models estrus, was lower in E and EP than in P, and also was lower than intake on Day 2, which models diestrus. In contrast, (2) neither E nor EP detectably affected optional fat intake during the 1-h fat access period relative to rats receiving only P when data were collapsed across the entire study. However, (3) E and EP had large effects on fat intake relative to P during the 1-h fat access period at the start of the study, but not at the end, when bingeing was fully established. (4) E and EP led to lower and apparently normal levels of body weight compared to rats receiving only the oil vehicle or only P. These results indicate that (1) administration of E alone has similar effects as co-administration of E and P on feeding and body weight in rats bingeing on fat, (2) with or without P, the inhibitory effects of E on meal size are compromised when bingeing on fat, and (3) the effects of E on binge size change dynamically as bingeing develops. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Rippe J.M.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute | Rippe J.M.,Rippe Lifestyle Research Institute of Florida | Rippe J.M.,University of Central Florida | Tappy L.,University of Lausanne
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2016

Few topics in nutrition engender more controversy than added sugars in general, and fructose-containing sugars in particular. Some investigators have argued that added sugars are associated with increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and even sugar 'addiction'. Other investigators have questioned the scientific basis for all of these assertions. This debate has extended far beyond the scientific community into various media outlets including the internet and other non-refereed venues often with heated rhetoric and little science. Against this backdrop, a group of experts and researchers in the metabolism and health effects of added sugars presented a symposium 'Sweeteners and Health: Findings from Recent Research and their Impact on Obesity and Related Metabolic Conditions' at the European Congress on Obesity on 7 May 2015. The papers in this supplement are based on the presentations made at this meeting. The current article is intended to serve as an Introduction to this supplement. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Rippe J.M.,University of Central Florida | Rippe J.M.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute
Advances in Nutrition | Year: 2013

Fructose-containing sugars, including fructose itself, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and sucrose have engendered considerable controversy. The effects of HFCS and sucrose in sugar-sweetened beverages, in particular, have generated intense scientific debate that has spilled over to the public. This controversy is related to well-known differences in metabolism between fructose and glucose in the liver. In addition, research studies have often been conducted comparing pure fructose and pure glucose even though neither is consumed to any appreciable degree in isolation in the human diet. Other evidence has been drawn from animal studies and epidemiologic or cohort studies. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have compared HFCS with sucrose (the 2 sugars most commonly consumed in the human diet) at dosage amounts within the normal human consumption range. This review compares results of recently concluded RCTs with other forms of evidence related to fructose, HFCS, and sucrose. We conclude that great caution must be used when suggesting adverse health effects of consuming these sugars in the normal way they are consumed and at the normal amounts in the human diet, because RCTs do not support adverse health consequences at these doses when employing these sugars. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.


Rippe J.M.,University of Central Florida | Rippe J.M.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute | Angelopoulos T.J.,University of Central Florida
Advances in Nutrition | Year: 2013

Both controversy and confusion exist concerning fructose, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) with respect to their metabolism and health effects. These concerns have often been fueled by speculation based on limited data or animal studies. In retrospect, recent controversies arose when a scientific commentary was published suggesting a possible unique link between HFCS consumption and obesity. Since then, a broad scientific consensus has emerged that there are no metabolic or endocrine response differences between HFCS and sucrose related to obesity or any other adverse health outcome. This equivalence is not surprising given that both of these sugars contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose, contain the same number of calories, possess the same level of sweetness, and are absorbed identically through the gastrointestinal tract. Research comparing pure fructose with pure glucose, although interesting from a scientific point of view, has limited application to human nutrition given that neither is consumed to an appreciable degree in isolation in the human diet. Whether there is a link between fructose, HFCS, or sucrose and increased risk of heart disease, metabolic syndrome, or fatty infiltration of the liver or muscle remains in dispute with different studies using different methodologies arriving at different conclusions. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to resolve many of these issues. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the metabolism, endocrine responses, and potential health effects of sucrose, HFCS, and fructose. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.


Angelopoulos T.J.,University of Central Florida | Lowndes J.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute | Sinnett S.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute | Rippe J.M.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute Shrewsbury | Rippe J.M.,University of Central Florida
Journal of Clinical Hypertension | Year: 2015

The impact of fructose, commonly consumed with sugars by humans, on blood pressure and uric acid has yet to be defined. A total of 267 weight-stable participants drank sugar-sweetened milk every day for 10 weeks as part of their usual, mixed-nutrient diet. Groups 1 and 2 had 9% estimated caloric intake from fructose or glucose, respectively, added to milk. Groups 3 and 4 had 18% of estimated caloric intake from high fructose corn syrup or sucrose, respectively, added to the milk. Blood pressure and uric acid were determined prior to and after the 10-week intervention. There was no effect of sugar type on either blood pressure or uric acid (interaction P>.05), and a significant time effect for blood pressure was noted (P<.05). The authors conclude that 10 weeks of consumption of fructose at the 50th percentile level, whether consumed as pure fructose or with fructose-glucose-containing sugars, does not promote hyperuricemia or increase blood pressure. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Bravo S.,University of Central Florida | Lowndes J.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute | Sinnett S.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute | Yu Z.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute | And 3 more authors.
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2013

It has been postulated that fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis is augmented when accompanied by glucose. Chronic elevations could lead to excess fat accumulation in the liver and ectopic fat deposition in muscles, which in turn could contribute to the induction of abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the addition of commonly consumed fructose- and (or) glucose-containing sugars in the usual diet on liver fat content and intramuscular adipose tissue. For 10 weeks, 64 individuals (mean age, 42.16 ± 11.66 years) consumed low-fat milk sweetened with either high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose; the added sugar matched consumption levels of fructose in the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the population. The fat content of the liver was measured with unenhanced computed tomography imaging, and the fat content of muscle was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. When the 6 HFCS and sucrose groups were averaged, there was no change over the course of 10 weeks in the fat content of the liver (13.32% ± 10.49% vs. 13.21% ± 10.75%; p > 0.05), vastus lateralis muscle (3.07 ± 0.74 g per 100 mL vs. 3.15 ± 0.84 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05), or gluteus maximus muscle (4.08 ± 1.50 g per 100 mL vs. 4.24 ± 1.42 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05). Group assignment did not affect the result (interaction > 0.05). These data suggest that when fructose is consumed as part of a typical diet in normally consumed sweeteners, such as sucrose or HFCS, ectopic fat storage in the liver or muscles is not promoted.


Rippe J.M.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute | Angelopoulos T.J.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute
Current atherosclerosis reports | Year: 2014

Daily lifestyle practices and habits profoundly affect the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Abundant research and multiple recent consensus documents support the role of regular physical activity, not smoking cigarettes, maintaining a healthy body weight, controlling cholesterol levels, and controlling blood pressure to lower the risk of CVD. These strategies also play important roles in avoiding ever developing risk factors. Despite overwhelming knowledge in this area, adherence to lifestyle strategies remains suboptimal. Challenges remain in helping the public to act upon the current knowledge in this area. Recent guidelines for managing cholesterol and blood pressure provide new guidance in these areas. Controversy, however, exists related to specific recommendations in both of these areas. Similar strategies that are applied to adults for improving lifestyle habits and practices to lower CVD risk also apply to children and adolescents. A clear consensus exists that lifestyle strategies play a critical role in preventing, managing, and reducing cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.


Rippe J.M.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute
Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The epidemic of obesity and related metabolic diseases continues to extract an enormous health toll. Multiple potential causes for obesity have been suggested, including increased fat consumption, increased carbohydrate consumption, decreased physical activity, and, most recently, increased fructose consumption. Most literature cited in support of arguments suggesting a link between obesity and fructose consumption is epidemiologic and does not establish cause and effect. The causes of obesity are well-known and involve the overconsumption of calories from all sources. Research employing a pure fructose model distorts the real-world situation of fructose consumption, which predominantly comes from sweeteners containing roughly equal proportions of glucose and fructose. The fructose hypothesis has the potential to distract us from further exploration and amelioration of known causes of obesity. Randomized prospective trials of metabolic consequences of fructose consumption at normal population levels and from sources typically found in the human diet such as sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup are urgently needed. © Diabetes Technology Society.


Yu Z.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute | Lowndes J.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute | Rippe J.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute | Rippe J.,University of Central Florida | Rippe J.,Rippe Health Evaluation
Nutrition Research | Year: 2013

Intake of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been suggested to contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity, whereas a number of studies and organizations have reported metabolic equivalence between HFCS and sucrose. We hypothesized that HFCS and sucrose would have similar effects on energy-regulating hormones and metabolic substrates at normal levels of human consumption and that these values would not change over a 10-week, free-living period at these consumption levels. This was a randomized, prospective, double-blind, parallel group study in which 138 adult men and women consumed 10 weeks of low-fat milk sweetened with either HFCS or sucrose at levels of the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentile population consumption of fructose (the equivalent of 40, 90, or 150 g of sugar per day in a 2000-kcal diet). Before and after the 10-week intervention, 24-hour blood samples were collected. The area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, insulin, leptin, active ghrelin, triglyceride, and uric acid was measured. There were no group differences at baseline or posttesting for all outcomes (interaction, P > .05). The AUC response of glucose, active ghrelin, and uric acid did not change between baseline and posttesting (P > .05), whereas the AUC response of insulin (P < .05), leptin (P < .001), and triglyceride (P < .01) increased over the course of the intervention when the 6 groups were averaged.We conclude that there are no differences in the metabolic effects of HFCS and sucrose when compared at low, medium, and high levels of consumption. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Rippe J.M.,Rippe Lifestyle Institute | Rippe J.M.,University of Central Florida | Angelopoulos T.J.,University of Central Florida
Current Atherosclerosis Reports | Year: 2014

Daily lifestyle practices and habits profoundly affect the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Abundant research and multiple recent consensus documents support the role of regular physical activity, not smoking cigarettes, maintaining a healthy body weight, controlling cholesterol levels, and controlling blood pressure to lower the risk of CVD. These strategies also play important roles in avoiding ever developing risk factors. Despite overwhelming knowledge in this area, adherence to lifestyle strategies remains suboptimal. Challenges remain in helping the public to act upon the current knowledge in this area. Recent guidelines for managing cholesterol and blood pressure provide new guidance in these areas. Controversy, however, exists related to specific recommendations in both of these areas. Similar strategies that are applied to adults for improving lifestyle habits and practices to lower CVD risk also apply to children and adolescents. A clear consensus exists that lifestyle strategies play a critical role in preventing, managing, and reducing cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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