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Ripon, WI, United States

Huber S.M.,TU Munich | Scanlon J.D.,Ripon College | Jimenez-Izal E.,Donostia International Physics Center | Ugalde J.M.,Donostia International Physics Center | Infante I.,Donostia International Physics Center
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2013

The origin of the high directionality of halogen bonding was investigated quantum chemically by a detailed comparison of typical adducts in two different orientations: linear (most stable) and perpendicular. Energy decomposition analyses revealed that the synergy between charge-transfer interactions and Pauli repulsion are the driving forces for the directionality, while electrostatic contributions are more favourable in the less-stable, perpendicular orientation. © 2013 the Owner Societies. Source


Using a bistable apparent-motion display, Odic and Pratt (2008, Perception 37 1790-1804) have recently presented data that they interpret as being inconsistent with what they call "the two-process theory". Instead, they argue, their data can be explained by the differential-activation theory along with a process they identify as "temporal summation of contrast". It is argued here that Odic and Pratt misinterpreted the two-process distinction and used a display that was too unusual to be adequately addressed by it. Further, their use of the differential-activation theory and, in particular, the temporal summation of contrast, seems problematic. It is concluded that there is little in their data and theoretical interpretation to justify rejection of the two-process approach. Source


Kovack-Lesh K.A.,Ripon College | Oakes L.M.,University of California at Davis | McMurray B.,University of Iowa
Infancy | Year: 2012

We examined how infants' categorization is jointly influenced by previous experience and how much they shift their gaze back and forth between stimuli. Extending previous findings reported by K. A. Kovack-Lesh, J. S. Horst, and L. M. Oakes (2008), we found that 4-month-old infants' (N=122) learning of the exclusive category of cats was related to whether they had cats at home and how much they shifted attention between two available stimuli during familiarization. Individual differences in attention assessed in an unrelated task were not related to their categorization. Thus, infants' learning is multiply influenced by past experience and online attentional style. © International Society on Infant Studies (ISIS). Source


Samet M.,University of Minnesota | Buhle J.,University of Minnesota | Buhle J.,Ripon College | Zhou Y.,University of Minnesota | Kass S.R.,University of Minnesota
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2015

Acidities are commonly measured in polar solvents but catalytic reactions are typically carried out in nonpolar media. IR spectra of a series of phenols in CCl4 and 1% CD3CN/CCl4 provide relative acidities. Nonprotonated charged substituents with an appropriate counterion are found to enhance their Bronsted acidities and improve catalyst performance by orders of magnitude. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source


Zhosan D.,Ripon College | Gardner R.,Indiana University
Environment and Development Economics | Year: 2013

This paper analyzes individual and group behavior in an experimental commons. Different factors that can help avoid the tragedy of the commons are studied in four experimental settings: separation of a larger commons into smaller commons (two harbors), knowledge/experience available to appropriators, communication within appropriator groups and the possibility of formal and informal sanctioning of group members. Subject populations include undergraduate students as well as professionals working in the Maine lobster and groundfish industries. This design enables a behavioral comparison between students and professionals, as well as a comparison between professionals in these two mutually exclusive fisheries. Results show that group size, communication, geographic separation and subjects' ability to solve the coordination game caused by this separation all contribute to appropriation efficiency on the commons. © 2012 Cambridge University Press. Source

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