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Krol L.,Los Angeles Zoo | Allender M.,Urbana University | Cray C.,University of Miami | George R.,Ripleys Aquarium of the Smokies
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2014

Plasma protein electrophoresis has been shown to be an important tool when recognizing disease in various species. Plasma was harvested from twenty captive whitespotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and gel electrophoresis was used to characterize the following protein fractions: total protein, prealbumin, albumin, α-1 globulin, α-2 globulin, β globulin, γ globulin, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and haptoglobin. The selected acute-phase proteins were assayed and reference intervals created for a population of captive whitespotted bamboo sharks, and then used to assess relationships between these protein concentration values, sex, and health status. There were significantly higher β fractions and total protein in females than in males. There did not appear to be a relationship between physical examination abnormalities of individual sharks and their plasma protein levels. Further research is needed to characterize the clinical importance of this response. © Copyright 2014 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Murray K.N.,University of Oregon | Dreska M.,University of Oregon | Nasiadka A.,University of Oregon | Rinne M.,Ripleys Aquarium of the Smokies | And 5 more authors.
Comparative Medicine | Year: 2011

The microsporidium Pseudoloma neurophilia represents a considerable challenge for laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio) facilities. In 2010, P. neurophilia infections were diagnosed in zebrafish from 74% of the facilities that submitted fish to the Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) pathology service, and this organism remains the most commonly diagnosed pathogen in submitted fish. Accordingly, many of the ZIRC pathology service consultations deal with control and prevention of microsporidiosis. Here we describe observations and experiments performed at the ZIRC elucidating aspects of P. neurophilia transmission in zebrafish colonies. We then review current knowledge about P. neurophilia transmission and diagnosis. Considering this information, we present recommendations for control of P. neurophilia in zebrafish facilities. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. Source

Steeil J.C.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Steeil J.C.,Smithsonian Institution | Schumacher J.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | George R.H.,Ripleys Aquarium of the Smokies | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2014

Cefovecin was administered to six healthy adult white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and six healthy adult Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) to determine its pharmacokinetics in these species. A single dose of cefovecin at 8 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously in the epaxial region of the bamboo sharks and in the proximal articulation of the lateral leg of the horseshoe crabs. Blood and hemolymph samples were collected at various time points from bamboo sharks and Atlantic horseshoe crabs. High performance liquid chromatography was performed to determine plasma levels of cefovecin. The terminal half-life of cefovecin in Atlantic horseshoe crabs was 37.70 ± 9.04 hr and in white bamboo sharks was 2.02 ± 4.62 hr. Cefovecin concentrations were detected for 4 days in white bamboo sharks and for 14 days in Atlantic horseshoe crabs. No adverse effects associated with cefovecin administration were seen in either species. © 2014 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Allender M.C.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Kastura M.,Ripleys Aquarium of the Smokies | George R.,Ripleys Aquarium of the Smokies | Bulman F.,Ripleys Aquarium of the Smokies | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2011

A description of bioencapsulation of metronidazole in adult brine shrimp (Artemia) for 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L, and 10 g/L treatment baths is presented. Metronidazole was detected in adult brine shrimp tissue after enrichment periods of 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 4 hr, 8 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr. The assays were performed using high performance liquid chromatography. There was a positive relationship in both dose and time. When evaluating percent uptake, all three baths demonstrated a similar pattern. All three bath concentrations had a high initial concentration that fell at 30 min and slowly began to increase through the end of the study. Survival of shrimp was not affected by bath concentration but decreased over time in all treatment baths comparatively. It can be concluded that metronidazole can be successfully bioencapsulated in adult Artemia. Copyright 2011 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

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