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Sita Road, Pakistan

Riphah International University is located at Islamabad, Pakistan. It was established on February 27, 2002 by the Islamic International Medical College Trust . The IIMCT was established in 1995 by Major General Muhammad Zulfiqar Ali Khan and is a non-profit, non-political, non-sectarian welfare organization registered with the government of Pakistan. It is chartered by the Federal Government of Pakistan. Wikipedia.

Muneer A.,Riphah International University
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience | Year: 2016

Bipolar disorder is manifested as severe dysregulation of mood with recurrent manic and major depressive episodes. It is associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities, inadequate response to currently available pharmacological agents and a progressively deteriorating course in many patients. The index episode is often depressive in nature, while the first manic or hypomanic episode may occur several years later in the course of the disorder causing delay in diagnosis and use of inappropriate treatment strategies. Staging has been used to great advantage in other branches of medicine like cardiology and oncology. There is growing realization that major mental disorders are fundamentally progressive, with simpler treatment requirements and better prognosis during initial stages of the illness. Defining these conditions into clinically applicable stages not only helps in better understanding the trajectory of a particular disorder, but also assists in management. Patients with a chronic, recalcitrant condition like bipolar disorder are likely to greatly benefit from this approach. If the illness is correctly identified early in its course, proper treatment can be instigated arresting progression to latter phases which are associated with myriad complications in the biopsychosocial realm. With these considerations, a search of the MEDLINE data base was conducted to seek out literature pertaining to staging models in bipolar disorder. A thorough scrutiny of the existing research work revealed that a number of investigators have endeavored to stage define bipolar disorder. This paper outlines staging proposals for bipolar disorder which have the greatest supporting evidence in the literature. Copyright © 2016, Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Source

Niazi S.K.,Riphah International University
North American Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2011

Background: Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) therapy is a meditation therapy, though originally designed for stress management, it is being used for treating a variety of illnesses such as depression, anxiety, chronic pain, cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, skin and immune disorders. Aim: The aim of this systematic review is to determine the efficacy of MBSR in the treatment of chronic illnesses; it's mechanism of action and adverse effects. It describes an alternative method of treatment for physicians and patients that may help patients cope with their diseases in a more effective way. Materials and Methods: COCHRANE, EMBASE and MEDLINE were systematically searched for data on outcome of treatment with MBSR used alone or in conjunction with other treatments. The data available on prevention of diseases through MBSR was also analyzed. Results: All the 18 studies included in this systematic review showed improvement in the condition of patients after MBSR therapy. These studies were focused on patients with chronic diseases like cancer, hypertension, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, chronic pain and skin disorders, before and after MBSR therapy. Conclusions: Although the research on MBSR is sparse, the results of these researches indicate that MBSR improves the condition of patients suffering from chronic illnesses and helps them cope with a wide variety of clinical problems. Source

Muneer A.,Riphah International University
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Bipolar disorder is a chronic, recurrent condition with the usual onset during adolescence or early adulthood. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition, it is conceptualized as a spectrum disorder usually associated with such comorbidities as anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. It is a relatively prevalent condition often complicated by mixed episodes, rapid cycling, subsyndromal symptoms, and treatment refractoriness. In spite of carrying substantial morbidity and mortality, effective treatments are few and far between and conventional mood stabilizers are often unsuccessful in controlling the various manifestations of the disorder. In this scenario, second generation antipsychotics are emerging as treatments with valid efficacy in all phases of bipolar disorder. Quetiapine is a versatile atypical antipsychotic which was first approved for the treatment of schizophrenia, but latter on the basis of controlled studies earned United States Food and Drug Administration's approval for acute as well as maintenance treatment of this difficult to treat condition. In this review, recently published studies in the last 10 years were examined to update the knowledge about the efficacy and safety of quetiapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder. The medication's clinical pharmacology was first considered followed by a literature review summarizing its uses in bipolar disorder. The conclusion was that quetiapine was efficacious in manic, mixed and depressive episodes and as a maintenance agent with a good tolerability profile. Copyright © 2015, Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Source

Qaisar Z.H.,University of Central Punjab | Rehman S.U.,Riphah International University
Advances in Engineering Software | Year: 2011

Regression testing is important activity during the software maintenance to deal with adverse effects of changes. Our approach is important for safety critical system as usually formal methods are preferred and highly recommended for the safety critical systems but they are also applied for the systems development of other than critical system. Our approach is based on Regression testing using VDM++ which takes two VDM++ specifications, one baseline and other delta (Changed) along with test suite for the baseline version. It compares both versions by using comparator module, identifies the change. By analyzing the change we classify the test cases from original test suite into obsolete, re-testable, and reusable test cases. Our scope is at unit level i.e. at class level. Our approach gets two versions of VDM++ specification and returns regression test suite for the delta version. Our approach distinguishes test cases which are still effective for the delta version of VDM++ specification and it differs from re-test all strategy as it can distinguish the test cases and identifies test cases which are useful for delta version. Test cases reusability and test case reduction is the main objective of our approach. Our approach presents how to perform regression testing using VDM++ specification during the maintenance of systems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Muneer A.,Riphah International University
Korean Journal of Family Medicine | Year: 2016

In the majority of cases of bipolar disorder, manic episodes are usually brief and typically responsive to currently available psychopharmacological agents. In contrast, depressive manifestations are more prevalent and persistent, and can present as major depressive/mixed episodes or residual interepisode symptoms. The depressive phase is often associated with other neuropsychiatric conditions, such as anxiety spectrum disorders, substance use disorders, stressor-related disorders, and eating disorders. It is viewed as a systemic disease with associated ailments such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. There is an increased rate of mortality not only from suicide, but also from concomitant physical illness. This scenario is made worse by the fact that depressive symptoms, which represent the main disease burden, are often refractory to existing psychotropic drugs. As such, there is a pressing need for novel agents that are efficacious in acute depressive exacerbations, and also have applicable value in preventing recurrent episodes. The rationale of the present review is to delineate the pharmacotherapy of the depressive phase of bipolar disorder with medications for which there is evidence in the form of observational, open-label, or double-blind randomized controlled studies. In the treatment of acute bipolar depression in adults, a comprehensive appraisal of the extant literature reveals that among mood stabilizers, the most robust proof of efficacy exists for divalproex sodium; while atypical antipsychotics, which include olanzapine, quetiapine, lurasidone, and cariprazine, are also effective, as demonstrated in controlled trials. © 2016 The Korean Academy of Family Medicine. Source

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