Sita Road, Pakistan
Sita Road, Pakistan

Riphah International University is located at Islamabad, Pakistan. It was established on February 27, 2002 by the Islamic International Medical College Trust . The IIMCT was established in 1995 by Major General Muhammad Zulfiqar Ali Khan and is a non-profit, non-political, non-sectarian welfare organization registered with the government of Pakistan. It is chartered by the Federal Government of Pakistan. Wikipedia.


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Niazi S.K.,Riphah International University
North American Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2011

Background: Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) therapy is a meditation therapy, though originally designed for stress management, it is being used for treating a variety of illnesses such as depression, anxiety, chronic pain, cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, skin and immune disorders. Aim: The aim of this systematic review is to determine the efficacy of MBSR in the treatment of chronic illnesses; it's mechanism of action and adverse effects. It describes an alternative method of treatment for physicians and patients that may help patients cope with their diseases in a more effective way. Materials and Methods: COCHRANE, EMBASE and MEDLINE were systematically searched for data on outcome of treatment with MBSR used alone or in conjunction with other treatments. The data available on prevention of diseases through MBSR was also analyzed. Results: All the 18 studies included in this systematic review showed improvement in the condition of patients after MBSR therapy. These studies were focused on patients with chronic diseases like cancer, hypertension, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, chronic pain and skin disorders, before and after MBSR therapy. Conclusions: Although the research on MBSR is sparse, the results of these researches indicate that MBSR improves the condition of patients suffering from chronic illnesses and helps them cope with a wide variety of clinical problems.


Mir N.,Effat University | Hussain S.A.,Riphah International University
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2011

With the increase in Internet Technologies, great amount of information is following electronically everyday over the network. Information security is a way to protect information against its confidentiality, reliability and availability. Hiding exchange of information is an important factor in the field of security. Cryptography and Steganography are two very important methods for this purpose and are both used to ensure data confidentiality. In Steganography a cover media is used to hide the existence of data where cryptography is used to protect information by transferring plain text into cipher text. Different methods have been studied for multimedia objects but there are very few methods for hiding information into text without altering its integrity. Web based attacks have been a very common practice in recent years and hence need strong security mechanisms for the sake of secret communication. Many robust algorithms can be developed using text Steganography for web pages as they contain a wide amount of bandwidth. A few techniques using web tools like HTML and XML have been proposed but they do not make use of features of these languages very well. This paper discusses some proposed methods, implementations of different embedding techniques and two different ways for hiding data and also a comparative analysis is made based upon some security variables. Text Steganography is applied on XML files and is further encrypted using a cryptographic algorithm. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Qaisar Z.H.,University of Central Punjab | Rehman S.U.,Riphah International University
Advances in Engineering Software | Year: 2011

Regression testing is important activity during the software maintenance to deal with adverse effects of changes. Our approach is important for safety critical system as usually formal methods are preferred and highly recommended for the safety critical systems but they are also applied for the systems development of other than critical system. Our approach is based on Regression testing using VDM++ which takes two VDM++ specifications, one baseline and other delta (Changed) along with test suite for the baseline version. It compares both versions by using comparator module, identifies the change. By analyzing the change we classify the test cases from original test suite into obsolete, re-testable, and reusable test cases. Our scope is at unit level i.e. at class level. Our approach gets two versions of VDM++ specification and returns regression test suite for the delta version. Our approach distinguishes test cases which are still effective for the delta version of VDM++ specification and it differs from re-test all strategy as it can distinguish the test cases and identifies test cases which are useful for delta version. Test cases reusability and test case reduction is the main objective of our approach. Our approach presents how to perform regression testing using VDM++ specification during the maintenance of systems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kausar A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ullah-Shah M.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Khan M.Y.,Riphah International University
Polymer - Plastics Technology and Engineering | Year: 2014

A straightforward condensation technique was used to prepare new poly(thiourea-amide) (PTA), in this attempt. Halloysite silica nanotubes (SiNTs) were prepared and utilized as fillers to produce novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials. Fine compatibility in PTA/SiNTs was confirmed by FESEM; where halloysite filler render unique uniformly and spherically pact morphology. SiNTs loading in polyamide produced mechanically and heat stable nanocomposites. Consequently, tensile strength of hybrids increased with SiNTs content 52.17-55.24 MPa. A 10% gravimetric loss (516-559°C) and glass transition temperature of PTA/SiNTs (161-168°C) also were shown to be noteworthy. Using silica nanotubes, nanohybrids with fine potential for several applications can be obtained. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Muneer A.,Riphah International University
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience | Year: 2016

Bipolar disorder is manifested as severe dysregulation of mood with recurrent manic and major depressive episodes. It is associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities, inadequate response to currently available pharmacological agents and a progressively deteriorating course in many patients. The index episode is often depressive in nature, while the first manic or hypomanic episode may occur several years later in the course of the disorder causing delay in diagnosis and use of inappropriate treatment strategies. Staging has been used to great advantage in other branches of medicine like cardiology and oncology. There is growing realization that major mental disorders are fundamentally progressive, with simpler treatment requirements and better prognosis during initial stages of the illness. Defining these conditions into clinically applicable stages not only helps in better understanding the trajectory of a particular disorder, but also assists in management. Patients with a chronic, recalcitrant condition like bipolar disorder are likely to greatly benefit from this approach. If the illness is correctly identified early in its course, proper treatment can be instigated arresting progression to latter phases which are associated with myriad complications in the biopsychosocial realm. With these considerations, a search of the MEDLINE data base was conducted to seek out literature pertaining to staging models in bipolar disorder. A thorough scrutiny of the existing research work revealed that a number of investigators have endeavored to stage define bipolar disorder. This paper outlines staging proposals for bipolar disorder which have the greatest supporting evidence in the literature. Copyright © 2016, Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology.


Mirza M.J.,Riphah International University | Anjum N.,Riphah International University
Journal of Multimedia | Year: 2012

We present a novel inter-camera trajectory association algorithm for partially overlapping visual sensor networks. The approach consists of three steps, namely Extraction, Representation and Association. Firstly, we extract trajectory segments in each camera view independently. These local trajectory segments are then projected on a common-plane. Next, we learn dynamic motion models of the projected trajectory segments using Modified Consistent Akaike's Information Criterion (MCAIC). These models help in removing noisy observations from a segment and hence perform smoothing efficiently. Then, each smoothed trajectory is represented by its curvature. Finally, we use normalized cross correlation, as a proximity measure, to establish correspondence among trajectories that are observed in multiple views. We evaluated the performance of the proposed approach on a simulated and real scenarios with simultaneous moving objects observed by multiple cameras and compared it with state-of-the-art algorithms. Convincing results are observed in favor of the proposed approach. © 2012 Academy Publisher.


Anjum N.,Riphah International University
Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper presents an algorithm for camera localization using trajectory estimation (CLUTE) in a distributed network of nonoverlapping cameras. The algorithm recovers the extrinsic calibration parameters, namely, the relative position and orientation of the camera network on a common ground plane coordinate system. We first model the observed trajectories in each camera's field of view using Kalman filtering, then we use this information to estimate the missing trajectory information in the unobserved areas by fusing the results of a forward and backward linear regression estimation from adjacent cameras. These estimated trajectories are then filtered and used to recover the relative position and orientation of the cameras by analyzing the estimated and observed exit and entry points of an object in each camera's field of view. The final configuration of the network is established by considering one camera as a reference and by adjusting the remaining cameras with respect to this reference. We demonstrate the algorithm on both simulated and real data and compare the results with state-of-the-art approaches. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is more robust to noisy and missing data and in case of camera failure. © 2011 Nadeem Anjum.


Muneer A.,Riphah International University
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Bipolar disorder is a chronic, recurrent condition with the usual onset during adolescence or early adulthood. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition, it is conceptualized as a spectrum disorder usually associated with such comorbidities as anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. It is a relatively prevalent condition often complicated by mixed episodes, rapid cycling, subsyndromal symptoms, and treatment refractoriness. In spite of carrying substantial morbidity and mortality, effective treatments are few and far between and conventional mood stabilizers are often unsuccessful in controlling the various manifestations of the disorder. In this scenario, second generation antipsychotics are emerging as treatments with valid efficacy in all phases of bipolar disorder. Quetiapine is a versatile atypical antipsychotic which was first approved for the treatment of schizophrenia, but latter on the basis of controlled studies earned United States Food and Drug Administration's approval for acute as well as maintenance treatment of this difficult to treat condition. In this review, recently published studies in the last 10 years were examined to update the knowledge about the efficacy and safety of quetiapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder. The medication's clinical pharmacology was first considered followed by a literature review summarizing its uses in bipolar disorder. The conclusion was that quetiapine was efficacious in manic, mixed and depressive episodes and as a maintenance agent with a good tolerability profile. Copyright © 2015, Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology.


Muneer A.,Riphah International University
Korean Journal of Family Medicine | Year: 2016

In the majority of cases of bipolar disorder, manic episodes are usually brief and typically responsive to currently available psychopharmacological agents. In contrast, depressive manifestations are more prevalent and persistent, and can present as major depressive/mixed episodes or residual interepisode symptoms. The depressive phase is often associated with other neuropsychiatric conditions, such as anxiety spectrum disorders, substance use disorders, stressor-related disorders, and eating disorders. It is viewed as a systemic disease with associated ailments such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. There is an increased rate of mortality not only from suicide, but also from concomitant physical illness. This scenario is made worse by the fact that depressive symptoms, which represent the main disease burden, are often refractory to existing psychotropic drugs. As such, there is a pressing need for novel agents that are efficacious in acute depressive exacerbations, and also have applicable value in preventing recurrent episodes. The rationale of the present review is to delineate the pharmacotherapy of the depressive phase of bipolar disorder with medications for which there is evidence in the form of observational, open-label, or double-blind randomized controlled studies. In the treatment of acute bipolar depression in adults, a comprehensive appraisal of the extant literature reveals that among mood stabilizers, the most robust proof of efficacy exists for divalproex sodium; while atypical antipsychotics, which include olanzapine, quetiapine, lurasidone, and cariprazine, are also effective, as demonstrated in controlled trials. © 2016 The Korean Academy of Family Medicine.


Muneer A.,Riphah International University
Psychiatry Investigation | Year: 2016

Bipolar disorder is a severe and enduring psychiatric condition which in many cases starts during early adulthood and follows a relapsing and remitting course throughout life. In many patients the disease follows a progressive path with brief periods of inter-episode recovery, sub-threshold symptoms, treatment resistance and increasing functional impairment in the biopsychosocial domains. Knowledge about the neurobiology of bipolar disorder is increasing steadily and evidence from several lines of research implicates immuno-inflammatory mechanisms in the brain and periphery in the etiopathogenesis of this illness and its comorbidities. The main findings are an increase in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines during acute episodes with a decrease in neurotrophic support. Related to these factors are glial cell dysfunction, neuro-endocrine abnormalities and neurotransmitter aberrations which together cause plastic changes in the mood regulating areas of the brain and neuroprogression of the bipolar diathesis. Research in the above mentioned areas is providing an opportunity to discover novel biomarkers for the disease and the field is reaching a point where major breakthroughs can be expected in the not too distant future. It is hoped that with new discoveries fresh avenues will be found to better treat an otherwise recalcitrant disease. © 2016 Korean Neuropsychiatric Association.

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