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Bahia R.G.,Rio Of Janeiro Botanical Garden Research Institute | Riosmena-Rodriguez R.,Autonomous University of Baja California Sur | Maneveldt G.W.,University of the Western Cape | Amado Filho G.M.,Rio Of Janeiro Botanical Garden Research Institute
Phycological Research | Year: 2011

Samples corresponding to Sporolithon ptychoides Heydrich were collected in the mesophotic zone (50 m depth) south of Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The collected material presented features characteristic of the species, namely: tetrasporangia of 75-105 × 40-55 μm grouped into sori that are raised above the surrounding vegetative thallus surface; presence of a basal layer of elongate cells in areas where the tetrasporangia develop; presence of buried tetrasporangial compartments deep in the thallus; and 3-5 cells in the tetrasporangial paraphyses. These same features said to collectively characterize S. ptychoides, were all observed in a representative specimen and the type specimen of Sporolithon dimotum (Foslie & Howe) Yamaguishi-Tomita ex M.J Wynne. This latter species is thus conspecific with S. ptychoides and is therefore considered a heterotypic synonym thereof, as S. ptychoides has nomenclatural priority. This study expands the known geographical distribution of the species and may give insight into the origin of the species into other geographical regions. © 2010 Japanese Society of Phycology.

Rajput K.S.,Rio Of Janeiro Botanical Garden Research Institute | Rajput K.S.,M. S. University of Baroda | Nunes O.M.,Rio Of Janeiro Botanical Garden Research Institute | Brandes A.F.N.,Rio Of Janeiro Botanical Garden Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants | Year: 2012

The occurrence of flattened stems in Rhynchosia phaseoloides (SW.) DC. (Fabaceae) has been known for years, but little interest has been shown toward elucidating its secondary growth. This study aims to (1) understand the pattern of secondary growth and development of vascular elements from the cambium at different stages of stem growth and (2) elucidate the type, size and distribution of cells related to these processes at different regions of the stem. Dilatation growth in main stems and branches of R. phaseoloides is achieved by successive cambia formed in two areas of the actual cortex that are opposed to each other by approximately 180°. Only the first cambial ring is functionally normal and closed-elliptical in outline, supporting the growth of the middle part of the rather flat stem. Later on, this stem becomes oval to oblong in cross-section outline by the activity of successive cambia from which cells produce further xylem, phloem and parenchyma tissues in a somewhat fan-shaped way. As shown in cross section, a flat cable-like structure of several modules results, forming wings relative to the primary central axis tissues. The secondary cambia are formed by dedifferentiation of cortical parenchyma cells, resulting in small clusters of radially arranged meristematic bands of cells. From these meristematic bands, an outward-facing crescent-shaped new band of cambium is originated. The innermost cells of this meristematic band form the parenchymatic tissue that connects the new lateral module to the proximal one. This occurs several times during the whole stem ontogeny. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.

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