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Mothe D.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Avilla L.S.,Rio de Janeiro State Federal University | Cozzuol M.A.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Journal of Mammalian Evolution | Year: 2013

The taxonomic history of South American Gomphotheriidae is very complex and controversial. Three species are currently recognized: Amahuacatherium peruvium, Cuvieronius hyodon, and Notiomastodon platensis. The former is a late Miocene gomphothere whose validity has been questioned by several authors. The other two, C. hyodon and N. platensis, are Quaternary taxa in South America, and they have distinct biogeographic patterns: Andean and lowland distributions, respectively. South American gomphotheres became extinct at the end of the Pleistocene. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of Proboscidea including the South American Quaternary gomphotheres, which resulted in two most parsimonious trees. Our results support a paraphyletic Gomphotheriidae and a monophyletic South American gomphothere lineage: C. hyodon and N. platensis. The late Miocene gomphothere record in Peru, Amahuacatherium peruvium, seems to be a crucial part of the biogeography and evolution of the South American gomphotheres. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Non-surgical techniques used in the rejuvenation of the periorbital region, notably regarding injections of hyaluronic acid for the correction of depressed areas. However, in spite of the good results brought by these described techniques and products, there are still complications linked to their use, such as color alterations, irregularities in the surface of the skin, local edema, and long time of recovery. In an attempt to abate those undesirable effects, thirty patients were treated with a filler of low hyaluronic acid concentration, slowly and sequentially depositing small drops in a superficial plane, reminding a string of beads, with the subsequent application of digital pressure. This technique of easy application, has presented good aesthetical results and lower risk of undesirable effects and complications.

OBJECTIVE:: The beneficial effects of estrogen on endothelial function depend on its integrity. This study evaluates the short-term effects of low-dose transdermal estradiol on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and blood viscosity in nondiabetic overweight/obese women. METHODS:: Forty-four nondiabetic overweight/obese women with a history of recent menopause were randomly allocated, in a double-blind fashion, to receive transdermal estradiol (1?mg/d, n?=?22) or placebo (n?=?22). The following parameters were assessed: endothelial reactivity (venous occlusion plethysmography and nailfold videocapillaroscopy), plasma levels of soluble adhesion molecules, insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and areas under the curve of insulin and glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test), and blood and plasma viscosity. Data were expressed as means?±?SD or medians [first to third quartiles]. RESULTS:: Participants were aged 51.8?±?2.3 years with a body mass index of 31.5?±?2.5?kg/m and time since menopause was 3 [2-5] years. At baseline, no differences between the groups were observed; however, after 3 months of treatment, the following changes were observed in the estradiol group compared with the placebo group: a decrease in the forearm vascular resistance at baseline (36.37 [24.9-51.27] vs 51.3 [40.88-70.03]?mm Hg/mL per min 100?mL tissue, P?

Vieira M.T.C.,Rio de Janeiro State Federal University
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND:: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization has been linked to HIV-related sexual and social behaviors. MRSA risk factors may be different for HIV-infected children, adolescents and young adults. We investigated the association of MRSA colonization, persistent colonization and genotypes with potential risk factors among HIV-infected youth. METHODS:: For this case-control study, patients 24 years of age or younger attending 2 HIV reference centers were recruited from February to August 2012 and followed for 1 year. Nasal swabs were collected at enrollment and every 3 months. MRSA clones were characterized by staphylococcal chromosomal cassete mec typing, spa typing and multilocus sequence typing. We compared MRSA colonization and persistent colonization with patient demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS:: Among 117 participants, MRSA colonization frequency (calculated for each collection based on the number of positive cultures per patient) was 12.8% at the first collection. The average MRSA colonization frequency was 10.4%. Our results showed 11.1% were persistent carriers (subjects with more than 1 positive culture in at least 3). Crowding was the only factor associated with MRSA colonization (p=0.018). Persistent carriers had significantly higher (4.2 times) odds of living in a crowded household (95% confidence interval - 1.1 - 16.2). We observed high genetic diversity among MRSA isolates, with t002/ST5 and t318/ST30 being the most frequent. CONCLUSIONS:: MRSA colonization among HIV-infected youth is more closely related to living in a low-income or slum community than to HIV-related clinical factors. High genetic MRSA isolate diversity in our population suggests frequent transmission. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

The study aimed to assess the effects of a music therapy program on the level of stress for female professionals working in a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil. Thirty four female volunteers with 33.3 ± 8.5 years of age from different levels of professional participated in the study. We used the Lipp's inventory of symptoms of stress for adults (ISSL) to evaluate the level of stress of participants before and after music therapy. The program consisted of twelve sessions using the techniques of music therapy Improvisation and Musical Re-creation held once a week with 50 minutes / session in a period of three months. The Wilcoxon test for repeated measures was used for statistical analysis. The study showed a statistically significant decrease (Δ = - 60%, p <0.001) in the level of stress professionals studied after the music therapy program. In conclusion, the present study that the music therapy program was effective in decrease the level of stress of women health professionals working in a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil.

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