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Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Costa D.P.,Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden | Peralta D.F.,Institute of Botany of Sao Paulo
Rodriguesia | Year: 2015

The bryoflora of Brazil comprises 1,524 species, 117 families, and 413 genera (11 hornworts, 633 liverworts, and 880 mosses). The most diverse families of liverworts are: Lejeuneaceae (285 species), Lepidoziaceae (48), Frullaniaceae (37), Ricciaceae (36), Plagiochilaceae (27), Radulaceae and Metzgeriaceae (26 each), Lophocoleaceae (18), Aneuraceae (15), and Calypogeiaceae (13); while, for the mosses, we have: Sphagnaceae (83 species), Fissidentaceae (65) Pottiaceae (63), Dicranaceae (54), Bryaceae and Sematophyllaceae (53 each), Orthotrichaceae and Pilotrichaceae (51 each), Calymperaceae (48), and Hypnaceae (28). These large groups account for 71% of the Brazilian bryophyte species. Lejeuneaceae and Sphagnaceae are the families with highest number of endemic taxa (54 and 60 species). The Atlantic Rainforest presents the greatest number of species (1,337), followed by the Amazon Rainforest (570) and Cerrado (478). The highest number of endemic species (242) is associated with the Atlantic Rainforest, where the Dense Ombrophilous Forest concentrates 73% of the species with 62% endemism. The Southeastern region is the most diverse in number of species (1,228) and with more endemism (219). Most endangered species are restricted to the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil, which is the diversity and endemism centre for mosses and liverworts. The information currently presented by the Brazilian List is close to the real bryophyte diversity found in the country.

Kollmann L.J.C.,Museu de Biologia Prof. Mello Leitao MBML | Da Silva Lopes R.,Superintendencia Estadual Regional de Educacao | Peixoto A.L.,Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden
Candollea | Year: 2015

Begonia jaguarensis L. Kollmann, R. S. Lopes & Peixoto (Begoniaceae), a new species from North of Espírito Santo state, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This new species is related to Begonia thelmae L. B. Sm. & Wassh. with which it is compared. Diagnosis, description, conservation status, pictures, map and comments about geographic distribution are also provided. © CONSERVATOIRE ET JARDIN BOTANIQUES DE GENÈVE 2015.

Al-Saari N.,Hokkaido University | Gao F.,Hokkaido University | Rohul A.A.K.M.,Hokkaido University | Sato K.,Hokkaido University | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Advances in genomic microbial taxonomy have opened the way to create a more universal and transparent concept of species but is still in a transitional stage towards becoming a defining robust criteria for describing new microbial species with minimum features obtained using both genome and classical polyphasic taxonomies. Here we performed advanced microbial taxonomies combined with both genome-based and classical approaches for new agarolytic vibrio isolates to describe not only a novel Vibrio species but also a member of a new Vibrio clade. Two novel vibrio strains (Vibrio astriarenae sp. Nov. C7T and C20) showing agarolytic, halophilic and fermentative metabolic activity were isolated from a seawater sample collected in a coral reef in Okinawa. Intraspecific similarities of the isolates were identical in both sequences on the 16S rRNA and pyrH genes, but the closest relatives on the molecular phylogenetic trees on the basis of 16S rRNA and pyrH gene sequences were V. hangzhouensis JCM 15146T (97.8% similarity) and V. agarivorans CECT 5085T (97.3% similarity), respectively. Further multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) on the basis of 8 protein coding genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) obtained by the genome sequences clearly showed the V. astriarenae strain C7T and C20 formed a distinct new clade protruded next to V. agarivorans CECT 5085T. The singleton V. agarivorans has never been included in previous MLSA of Vibrionaceae due to the lack of some gene sequences. Now the gene sequences are completed and analysis of 100 taxa in total provided a clear picture describing the association of V. agarivorans into pre-existing concatenated network tree and concluded its relationship to our vibrio strains. Experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) data showed that the strains C7T and C20 were conspecific but were separated from all of the other Vibrio species related on the basis of both 16S rRNA and pyrH gene phylogenies (e.g., V. agarivorans CECT 5085T, V. hangzhouensis JCM 15146T V. maritimus LMG 25439T, and V. variabilis LMG 25438T). In silico DDH data also supported the genomic relationship. The strains C7T also had less than 95% average amino acid identity (AAI) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) towards V. maritimus C210, V. variabilis C206, and V. mediterranei AK1T, V. brasiliensis LMG 20546T, V. orientalis ATCC 33934T, and V. sinaloensis DSM 21326. The name Vibrio astriarenae sp. Nov. is proposed with C7 as the type strains. Both V. agarivorans CECT 5058T and V. astriarenae C7T are members of the newest clade of Vibrionaceae named Agarivorans. © 2015 Al-saari et al.

Maciel-Silva A.S.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Gaspar E.P.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | da Conceicao F.P.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Dias dos Santos N.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Pinheiro da Costa D.,Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden
Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Syzygiella rubricaulis is a dioecious leafy liverwort disjunctly distributed and restricted to high-altitude mountains in the Neotropics and the Azores. This study is part of a larger project examining the phylogeography of S. rubricaulis in the Neotropics, and our main goals were to understand its reproductive biology, where sex expression occurs, if vegetative propagules are frequently found, how the sexes are distributed in populations, how frequently sporophytes are formed and what environmental conditions influence sexual expression. S. rubricaulis patches are mostly female, but all patches also contain non sex-expressing shoots. Out of 42 patches examined, 29 (69%) were sex-expressing: 25 were unisexual (21 female and four male) and four of mixed sex (two male-biased and two unbiased). At shoot level, out of 4200 shoots 18% were female and 7% male; among sex-expressing shoots, 73% were female, representing a sex ratio of 0.8 (female-biased). We encountered a total of 33 sporophytes in six patches (in Brazil, Venezuela and Ecuador). Leaf regenerants were found in one patch in Mexico. Low rates of sporophytes were likely related to low frequencies of male shoots and large distances between the sexes. As 25% of S. rubricaulis shoots expressed sex (occasionally producing sporophytes), we suggest that short-distance (and rarely long-distance) spore dispersal events occur in mountainous areas on a short-term basis. On a long-term basis, however, these events likely contribute to dynamic exchanges among populations in the Neotropics. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands

Forzza R.C.,Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden | Baumgratz J.F.A.,Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden | Bicudo C.E.M.,Botanical Institute | Carvalho Jr. A.A.,Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden | And 18 more authors.
BioScience | Year: 2012

A comprehensive new inventory of Brazilian plants and fungi was published just in time to meet a 2010 Convention on Biological Diversity target and offers important insights into this biodiversity's global significance. Brazil is the home to the world's richest flora (40,989 species; 18,932 endemic) and includes two of the hottest hotspots: Mata Atlntica (19,355 species) and Cerrado (12,669 species). Although the total number of known species is one-third lower than previous estimates, the absolute number of endemic vascular plant species is higher than was previously estimated, and the proportion of endemism (56%) is the highest in the Neotropics. This compilation serves not merely to quantify the scale of the challenge faced in conserving Brazil's unique flora but also serves as a key resource to direct action and monitor progress. Similar efforts by other megadiverse countries are urgently required if the 2020 targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation are to be attained. © 2012 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

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