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Belfiore, Italy

Mannu P.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Rinaldi S.,University of Florence | Fontani V.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Castagna A.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute
Clinical Interventions in Aging | Year: 2011

Purpose: Behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and disrupt the effective management of AD patients. The present study explores the use of radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation (REAC) in patients who have had a poor response to pharmacological treatment. Patients and methods: Eight patients (five females and three males; mean [±standard deviation] age at study baseline: 69.9 ± 3.0 years) diagnosed with AD according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria (mean onset age of AD: 65.4 ± 3.5 years) were cognitively and psychometrically assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Activity of Daily Living (ADL), the Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), prior to and after each of 2 REAC treatment cycles. Results: Scores on the MMSE and all subscales of the NPI (frequency, severity, and distress), the ADL, and the IADL were significantly improved following the initial REAC treatment. There was further significant improvement in all measurements (with a tendency for improvement in the IADL) after the second REAC treatment cycle. Conclusion: The improvement of cognitive and behavioral/psychiatric functioning following REAC treatment suggests that this innovative approach may be an effective, safe, and tolerable alternative to pharmacological treatment of AD patients, especially in the area of BPSD. Elderly patients suffering from other types of dementia may also benefit from REAC treatment. © 2011 Mannu et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source


Rinaldi S.,University of Florence | Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Fontani V.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Aravagli L.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Margotti M.L.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute
Stress and Health | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study was the evaluation of the effectiveness in the improvement of the psychic and symptomatic stress-related disorders by means of radio-electric stimulation on some auricular reflex points with a device named the radio-electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC). This study was conducted on 124 subjects with psychological distress symptoms that were assessed by the Symptomatic Check List-90 (SCL-90) pre- and post-intervention. After randomization, two groups were created: a group treated with effective REAC and a group that underwent the same treatment with disarmed REAC (the placebo group). There was a significant reduction in SCL-90 scores in the treated group compared with the placebo group. The results of the psychometric tests showed that the subjects who underwent effective therapy showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in their level of stress and psychological disorders compared with the control group. The reduction of the levels of perceived stress and the reduction of the psychic and symptomatic stress-related disorders assessed by SCL-90 tests, obtained after one cycle of reflex auricular protocol REAC treatment, showed that this treatment can be useful in the cure of psychological stress-related symptoms. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Mannu P.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Rinaldi S.,University of Florence | Fontani V.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Castagna A.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment | Year: 2011

Background: The bipolar spectrum disorders are considered an important and frequent psychiatric problem. The clinical complexity of these illnesses due to the coexistence of depressive and excitative phases is correlated with the global difficulty of adequate treatment; consequently, the prognosis is not optimal. For this reason, in recent years, novel nonpharmacologic physical approaches have been tested for bipolar disorders, with encouraging results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of a radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation device associated with lithium (REAC-lithium) versus previous treatments in subjects with bipolar disorder I or II, evaluated as the number of recurrences compared with the period of illness preceding treatment with REAC-lithium. Methods: The charts of 56 bipolar patients attending our institute were retrospectively evaluated. Treatment with REAC-lithium was administered following the standard Rinaldi-Fontani Institute protocol. Add-on treatments were allowed in the event of manic or depressive recurrence. Eight patients (Group 1) were followed for 30.2 ± 3.0 months, 14 patients (Group 2) were followed for 25.3 ± 3.3 months, 25 patients (Group 3) were followed for 20.3 ± 1.6 months, and nine patients (Group 4) were followed for 16.2 ± 0.5 months. Results: After REAC-lithium treatment, the number of manic and depressive episodes in Group 1 decreased from 2.1 ± 0.6 and 3.0 ± 0.7 to 0.12 ± 0.0 and 0.8 ± 0.4, respectively. In Group 2, the number of manic and depressive episodes decreased from 2.4 ± 0.6 and 3.9 ± 0.7 to 0.14 ± 0.2 and 0.0 ± 0.0, respectively. In Group 3, the number of manic and depressive episodes decreased from 2.6 ± 0.8 and 3.6 ± 0.9 to 0.04 ± 0.0 and 0.0 ± 0.0, respectively. In Group 4, the number of manic and depressive episodes decreased from 2.6 ± 1.1 and 3.7 ± 1.0 to 0.1 ± 0.0 and 0.0 ± 0.0, respectively. All results were statistically significant. Conclusion: REAC showed good efficacy in treating both the manic and depressive phases of bipolar disorder, and in the prevention of recurrences/relapses. © 2011 Mannu et al. Source


Rinaldi S.,University of Florence | Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Fontani V.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Aravagli L.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Mannu P.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes | Year: 2010

Background: The aim of this double-blind randomized study is to test the efficacy of a radio electric stimulator device using an auricular reflex therapy protocol for stress-related symptoms.Methods: The study has been carried out on 200 subjects (138 females, 62 males) that voluntarily came to our Institute declaring to "feel stressed".The participants were randomly allocated with a computerized procedure: 150 were treated with auricular therapeutic protocol with radio electric stimulator device (REAC) and 50 were treated with an inactivated, placebo REAC. Psychological stress was evaluated trough the self-administered questionnaire Psychological Stress Measure (PSM). Assessment data were collected at 2 time points: before the treatment (T0) and immediately after the therapy cycle of 18 sessions about 4 weeks later (T1).Results: In the group treated with REAC, the psychometric evaluation after the therapy's cycle showed a significant reduction of PSM total scores, from 107.8 ± 23,13 at T0 to 87.1 ± 16,21 at T1 (p < 0.5), while in the control group no significant variation in decreasing stress-related symptomatology has been noted (107.86 ± 25,80 at T0 and 106.32 ± 25,88 at T1 (p = NS).Conclusions: The protocol of the auricular treatment with REAC seems to reduce the subjective perception of stress, as "psychometrically" demonstrated by the significant reduction in PSM test total score. This therapeutical procedure also provides a non invasive, not painful and very simple innovative approach to treat the widely diffused stress related disorders.Trial Registration: This trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) with the number: ACTRN12607000529448. © 2010 Rinaldi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Rinaldi S.,University of Florence | Fontani V.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Castagna A.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment | Year: 2011

Purpose: Radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation technology with its treatment protocols has shown efficacy in various psychiatric disorders. The aim of this work was to highlight the mechanisms by which these positive effects are achieved. The current study was conducted to determine whether a single 500-millisecond radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC) brain stimulation pulse (BSP), applied to the ear, can effect a modification of brain activity that is detectable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Ten healthy volunteers, six females and four males, underwent fMRI during a simple finger-tapping motor task before and after receiving a single 500-millisecond REAC-BSP. Results: The fMRI results indicate that the average variation in task-induced encephalic activation patterns is lower in subjects following the single REAC pulse. Conclusion: The current report demonstrates that a single REAC-BSP is sufficient to modulate brain activity in awake subjects, able to be measured using fMRI. These initial results open new perspectives into the understanding of the effects of weak and brief radio pulses upon brain activity, and provide the basis for further in depth studies using REAC-BSP and fMRI. © 2011 Rinaldi et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source

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