Rinaldi Fontani Institute

Firenze, Italy

Rinaldi Fontani Institute

Firenze, Italy
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Mannu P.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Rinaldi S.,University of Florence | Fontani V.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Castagna A.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute
Clinical Interventions in Aging | Year: 2011

Purpose: Behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and disrupt the effective management of AD patients. The present study explores the use of radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation (REAC) in patients who have had a poor response to pharmacological treatment. Patients and methods: Eight patients (five females and three males; mean [±standard deviation] age at study baseline: 69.9 ± 3.0 years) diagnosed with AD according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria (mean onset age of AD: 65.4 ± 3.5 years) were cognitively and psychometrically assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Activity of Daily Living (ADL), the Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), prior to and after each of 2 REAC treatment cycles. Results: Scores on the MMSE and all subscales of the NPI (frequency, severity, and distress), the ADL, and the IADL were significantly improved following the initial REAC treatment. There was further significant improvement in all measurements (with a tendency for improvement in the IADL) after the second REAC treatment cycle. Conclusion: The improvement of cognitive and behavioral/psychiatric functioning following REAC treatment suggests that this innovative approach may be an effective, safe, and tolerable alternative to pharmacological treatment of AD patients, especially in the area of BPSD. Elderly patients suffering from other types of dementia may also benefit from REAC treatment. © 2011 Mannu et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Rinaldi S.,University of Florence | Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Fontani V.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Aravagli L.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Margotti M.L.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute
Stress and Health | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study was the evaluation of the effectiveness in the improvement of the psychic and symptomatic stress-related disorders by means of radio-electric stimulation on some auricular reflex points with a device named the radio-electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC). This study was conducted on 124 subjects with psychological distress symptoms that were assessed by the Symptomatic Check List-90 (SCL-90) pre- and post-intervention. After randomization, two groups were created: a group treated with effective REAC and a group that underwent the same treatment with disarmed REAC (the placebo group). There was a significant reduction in SCL-90 scores in the treated group compared with the placebo group. The results of the psychometric tests showed that the subjects who underwent effective therapy showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in their level of stress and psychological disorders compared with the control group. The reduction of the levels of perceived stress and the reduction of the psychic and symptomatic stress-related disorders assessed by SCL-90 tests, obtained after one cycle of reflex auricular protocol REAC treatment, showed that this treatment can be useful in the cure of psychological stress-related symptoms. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Mannu P.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Rinaldi S.,University of Florence | Fontani V.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Castagna A.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment | Year: 2011

Background: The bipolar spectrum disorders are considered an important and frequent psychiatric problem. The clinical complexity of these illnesses due to the coexistence of depressive and excitative phases is correlated with the global difficulty of adequate treatment; consequently, the prognosis is not optimal. For this reason, in recent years, novel nonpharmacologic physical approaches have been tested for bipolar disorders, with encouraging results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of a radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation device associated with lithium (REAC-lithium) versus previous treatments in subjects with bipolar disorder I or II, evaluated as the number of recurrences compared with the period of illness preceding treatment with REAC-lithium. Methods: The charts of 56 bipolar patients attending our institute were retrospectively evaluated. Treatment with REAC-lithium was administered following the standard Rinaldi-Fontani Institute protocol. Add-on treatments were allowed in the event of manic or depressive recurrence. Eight patients (Group 1) were followed for 30.2 ± 3.0 months, 14 patients (Group 2) were followed for 25.3 ± 3.3 months, 25 patients (Group 3) were followed for 20.3 ± 1.6 months, and nine patients (Group 4) were followed for 16.2 ± 0.5 months. Results: After REAC-lithium treatment, the number of manic and depressive episodes in Group 1 decreased from 2.1 ± 0.6 and 3.0 ± 0.7 to 0.12 ± 0.0 and 0.8 ± 0.4, respectively. In Group 2, the number of manic and depressive episodes decreased from 2.4 ± 0.6 and 3.9 ± 0.7 to 0.14 ± 0.2 and 0.0 ± 0.0, respectively. In Group 3, the number of manic and depressive episodes decreased from 2.6 ± 0.8 and 3.6 ± 0.9 to 0.04 ± 0.0 and 0.0 ± 0.0, respectively. In Group 4, the number of manic and depressive episodes decreased from 2.6 ± 1.1 and 3.7 ± 1.0 to 0.1 ± 0.0 and 0.0 ± 0.0, respectively. All results were statistically significant. Conclusion: REAC showed good efficacy in treating both the manic and depressive phases of bipolar disorder, and in the prevention of recurrences/relapses. © 2011 Mannu et al.


Rinaldi S.,University of Florence | Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Fontani V.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Aravagli L.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Mannu P.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes | Year: 2010

Background: The aim of this double-blind randomized study is to test the efficacy of a radio electric stimulator device using an auricular reflex therapy protocol for stress-related symptoms.Methods: The study has been carried out on 200 subjects (138 females, 62 males) that voluntarily came to our Institute declaring to "feel stressed".The participants were randomly allocated with a computerized procedure: 150 were treated with auricular therapeutic protocol with radio electric stimulator device (REAC) and 50 were treated with an inactivated, placebo REAC. Psychological stress was evaluated trough the self-administered questionnaire Psychological Stress Measure (PSM). Assessment data were collected at 2 time points: before the treatment (T0) and immediately after the therapy cycle of 18 sessions about 4 weeks later (T1).Results: In the group treated with REAC, the psychometric evaluation after the therapy's cycle showed a significant reduction of PSM total scores, from 107.8 ± 23,13 at T0 to 87.1 ± 16,21 at T1 (p < 0.5), while in the control group no significant variation in decreasing stress-related symptomatology has been noted (107.86 ± 25,80 at T0 and 106.32 ± 25,88 at T1 (p = NS).Conclusions: The protocol of the auricular treatment with REAC seems to reduce the subjective perception of stress, as "psychometrically" demonstrated by the significant reduction in PSM test total score. This therapeutical procedure also provides a non invasive, not painful and very simple innovative approach to treat the widely diffused stress related disorders.Trial Registration: This trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) with the number: ACTRN12607000529448. © 2010 Rinaldi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Rinaldi S.,University of Florence | Fontani V.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Castagna A.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment | Year: 2011

Purpose: Radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation technology with its treatment protocols has shown efficacy in various psychiatric disorders. The aim of this work was to highlight the mechanisms by which these positive effects are achieved. The current study was conducted to determine whether a single 500-millisecond radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC) brain stimulation pulse (BSP), applied to the ear, can effect a modification of brain activity that is detectable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Ten healthy volunteers, six females and four males, underwent fMRI during a simple finger-tapping motor task before and after receiving a single 500-millisecond REAC-BSP. Results: The fMRI results indicate that the average variation in task-induced encephalic activation patterns is lower in subjects following the single REAC pulse. Conclusion: The current report demonstrates that a single REAC-BSP is sufficient to modulate brain activity in awake subjects, able to be measured using fMRI. These initial results open new perspectives into the understanding of the effects of weak and brief radio pulses upon brain activity, and provide the basis for further in depth studies using REAC-BSP and fMRI. © 2011 Rinaldi et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Mura M.,University of Cagliari | Castagna A.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Fontani V.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment | Year: 2012

Purpose: This study assessed changes in functional dysmetria (FD) and in brain activation observable by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a leg flexion-extension motor task following brain stimulation with a single radioelectric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) pulse, according to the precisely defined neuropostural optimization (NPO) protocol. Population and methods: Ten healthy volunteers were assessed using fMRI conducted during a simple motor task before and immediately after delivery of a single REAC-NPO pulse. The motor task consisted of a flexion-extension movement of the legs with the knees bent. FD signs and brain activation patterns were compared before and after REAC-NPO. Results: A single 250-millisecond REAC-NPO treatment alleviated FD, as evidenced by patellar asymmetry during a sit-up motion, and modulated activity patterns in the brain, particularly in the cerebellum, during the performance of the motor task. Conclusion: Activity in brain areas involved in motor control and coordination, including the cerebellum, is altered by administration of a REAC-NPO treatment and this effect is accompanied by an alleviation of FD. © 2012 Mura et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Mura M.,University of Cagliari | Castagna A.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Fontani V.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014

The aim of this randomized double-blind study was to evaluate in healthy adult subjects, with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), long lasting changes in brain activation patterns following administration of a single, 250 milliseconds pulse emitted with radio-electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) technology in the Wi-Fi bands. The REAC impulse was not administered during the scan, but after this, according to a protocol that has previously been demonstrated to be effective in improving motor control and postural balance, in healthy subjects and patients. The study was conducted on 33 healthy volunteers, performed with a 1.5 T unit while operating a motor block task involving cyclical and alternating flexion and extension of one leg. Subsequently subjects were randomly divided into a treatment and a sham treatment control group. Repeated fMRI examinations were performed following the administration of the REAC pulse or sham treatment. The Treated group showed cerebellar and ponto-mesencephalic activation components that disappeared in the second scan, while these activation components persisted in the Sham group. This study shows that a very weak signal, such as 250 milliseconds Wi-Fi pulse, administered with REAC technology, could lead to lasting effects on brain activity modification.


Fontani V.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Castagna A.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Margotti M.L.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management | Year: 2012

Purpose: In the elderly population, problems with walking and balance are very common. These problems seriously affect the quality of life of the elderly. When gait and balance problems are caused by neurological disease, these problems can be more serious and difficult to handle. The aim of this pilot study was to verify the effect of a noninvasive radioelectric conveyor asymmetric brain stimulation protocol, named neuropostural optimization (NPO), to improve balance in neurological elderly. Patients and methods: Twelve patients suffering from various neurological diseases participated in this study. They were assessed with the Romberg test, which was performed on a computerized stabilometric platform before, immediately following, and 72 hours after NPO was used to improve balance. Results: The results showed that a stabilization of balance was recorded in all subjects a few minutes after administration of NPO. This stabilization increased 72 hours after treatment. Conclusion: The results show that NPO could be a valuable therapeutic approach to improve sensory-motor strategies and neurological control of balance in elderly patients suffering from various neurological diseases. © 2012 Fontani et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Fontani V.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Mannu P.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Mannu P.,Psychic Studies Center | Castagna A.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute
Patient Preference and Adherence | Year: 2011

Purpose: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a disabling condition that affects almost 5% of the general population. Many types of drugs have shown their efficacy in the treatment of SAD. There are also some data regarding psychotherapies, but no data are available today about the efficacy of brain stimulation techniques. The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of noninvasive brain stimulation neuro psycho physical optimization (NPPO) protocol performed by radio electric asymmetric conveyor (REAC) with that of sertraline in adults with SAD. Patients and methods: Twenty SAD patients on sertraline were compared with 23 SAD patients who refused any drug treatment and who chose to be treated with NPPO-REAC brain stimulation. This was a 6-month, open-label, naturalistic study. Patients on sertraline received flexible doses, whereas NPPO-REAC patients received two 18-session cycles of treatment. Clinical Global Improvement scale items 'much improved' or 'very much improved' and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale total score variation on fear and avoidance components were used to detect the results. The statistical analysis was performed with t-test. All measures,0.05 have been considered statistically significant. Results: Ten of 23 subjects on NPPO-REAC and six of the 20 taking sertraline were much improved or very much improved 1 month after the first NPPO-REAC cycle (t1). Sixteen of the subjects on NPPO-REAC and ten of the subjects taking sertraline were much improved or very much improved 1 month after the second NPPO-REAC cycle (t2). In respect of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, at t1 NPPO-REAC resulted in statistically more efficacy for sertraline on both fear and avoidance total scores. At t2, NPPO-REAC resulted in statistically more efficacy for sertraline on fear but not on avoidance. Conclusion: NPPO-REAC is an effective treatment for SAD, allowing substantial and clinically meaningful reductions in symptoms and disability in comparison with sertraline. © 2011 Fontani et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Mannu P.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Fontani V.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Castagna A.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Margotti M.L.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute
Patient Preference and Adherence | Year: 2011

Background: Agoraphobia is considered to be the most serious complication of panic disorder. It involves progressive development of debilitating anxiety symptoms related to being in situations where one would be extremely embarrassed and could not be rescued in the case of a panic attack. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of noninvasive brain stimulation using a radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC) for agoraphobia. Patients and methods: Twenty-three patients (3 males and 20 females) suffering from agoraphobia and without a history of panic disorder were evaluated by a psychiatrist using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, and the Agoraphobia Scale (AS). The patients were subjected to two 18-session cycles of noninvasive brain stimulation with the REAC, according to an established therapeutic protocol called neuropsycho- physical optimization. Results: Analyzing the anxiety and avoidance parameters of the AS after the first and second cycles of REAC treatment revealed variation in levels of response to treatment, including weak (AS item 7), moderate (AS items 10 and 13), and good responses (AS items 1-6, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 14-20). Conclusion: These results highlight the potential of the REAC to treat complex clinical situations such as agoraphobia, which is typically resistant to pharmacologic treatments. Furthermore, these data show the advantages of REAC treatment, even compared with modern cognitive behavioral therapy, including a relatively rapid and "stable" clinical response (just over 6 months) and economic cost. © 2011 Mannu et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

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