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Nallam S.R.,RIMS | Chiruvella S.,RIMS | Karanam S.,RIMS
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2017

Background and Aims: The ideal dose of dexmedetomidine for brachial plexus block is a matter of debate. This study was carried out to evaluate 50 μg or 100 μg of dexmedetomidine added to 0.5% levobupivacaine, with regard to the duration of analgesia. Our study also sought to assess the onset and duration of sensorimotor blockade, haemodynamic effects, sedation and adverse effects. Methods: One hundred adult patients undergoing upper limb surgeries under supraclavicular brachial plexus block were randomly allocated into two groups. Group LD50 received 29 ml of 0.5% levobupivacaine plus 50 μg of dexmedetomidine diluted in 1 ml of normal saline. Group LD100 received 29 ml of 0.5% levobupivacaine plus 100 μg of dexmedetomidine diluted in 1 ml of normal saline. Duration of analgesia was the primary outcome. Onset and duration of sensorimotor blockade, haemodynamic variables, sedation score, and adverse effects were secondary outcomes. The data were analysed with Students’ t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The onset of sensory block and motor block was 14.82 ± 3.8 min and 19.75 ± 6.3 min, respectively, in group LD50, while it was 11.15 ± 1.7 min and 14.3 ± 4.2 min, respectively, in group LD100. The duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in group LD100 (1033.6 ± 141.6 vs. 776.4 ± 138.6 min; P = 0.001). The incidence of bradycardia and sedation was observed in significantly more patients in group LD100. Significantly fewer patients in group LD100 required rescue analgesia. Conclusion: The 100 μg dose of dexmedetomidine in brachial plexus block hastens the onset and prolongs the duration of sensorimotor blockade and analgesia, but with higher incidence of bradycardia and sedation. © 2017 Indian Journal of Anaesthesia.

Pallavi Priya P.,P.A. College | Rajesh K.,P.A. College | Purushothama Reddy K.,P.A. College | Rama Devi V.,RIMS
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013

Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the pattern of drug use according to FDA categorization and evaluate the effect of supplements on growth of fetus in pregnant women. Method: A Prospective Observational study was conducted with280 pregnant women who visited IP and OP departments of the Obstetrics and Gynecology in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Prescribing frequency of drugs according to FDA was recorded by following the prescriptions and case sheet verification during their hospital stay. Among 280 pregnant women, fetus growth of 70 women using supplements were examined by using ultrasound scan up to their delivery and weight of the newborn was observed. Results: Most of the drugs prescribed are FDA category A(29.02%) and C (28.41%)in which supplements are majorly prescribed. The growth of fetus in 48 pregnant women who had used supplements regularly, (93.75%)had normal growth of fetus in which 10.4% were born with 2.5kg and 83.33% with >2.5kg and only (6.25%) had low growth of fetus born with <2.5kg and in 22 pregnant women who had used supplements irregularly, only (22.7%) had normal growth of fetus in which 13.63% were born with 2.5kg, 9.1% with >2.5kg and (72.72%) had low growth of fetus born with <2.5kg and (4.54)% was aborted. Conclusion: The study concludes that most of the drugs prescribed are safer and the supplements are necessary to increase the weight of fetus.

Metri Basavaraj C.,Bldeus Shri B M Patil Medical College | Peerapur B.V.,RIMS | Jyothi P.,Bldeus Shri B M Patil Medical College
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Objectives: Staphylococcus aureus were initially described in 1961 and emerged in the last decade as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens. The current study was undertaken to provide data for empirical selection of appropriate antibiotics for the treatment of diseases caused by S. aureus. Methods: Various clinical samples like pus, urine, stool, sputum, blood and other body fluids of patients were selected for study from June 2012 to June 2013. Staphylococcus aureus were identified by various biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates were performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Detection of the MRSA was done by Oxacillin disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 137 isolates of S. aureus were obtained over duration of 12 months. These included isolates from the sample of pus, urine, sputum, body fluids. Out of 137 S. aureus strains isolated, 62 (45.3%) were identified as MRSA and 75 (54.7%) were identified as MSSA based on oxacillin disk diffusion method. Anti-biograms revealed the high level of resistance among MRSA isolates when compared to MSSA isolates The most effective agent against MRSA isolates was linezolid (96.8%sensitive), followed by tetracycline (90.9%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (80.6%). Conclusion: The prevalence of MRSA in our hospital was high. Therefore to reduce the incidence of infections due to MRSA, we suggest implementation of the strict antibiotic policy guidelines and continuous monitoring of antibiotic susceptibility patterns of such pathogens. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science.

Kumar U.,SMS Medical College | Jha N.K.,R.I.M.S
Urology Annals | Year: 2017

Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors that are seen either sporadically or in patients of neurofibromatosis. This tumor is common in head, neck, and extremities. Penis is a rare site for this tumor. To the very best of our knowledge, <34 cases of penile schwannoma have been reported in literature till now, but none had presented as scrotal mass. Here, we report a case of penile schwannoma in a 16-year-old male boy who presented in our outpatient department with a slowly growing scrotal mass. Our patient did not have any other feature of neurofibromatosis. The patient after investigation underwent surgical excision and had no recurrence on follow-up of 5 years. © 2017 Urology Annals Published by Wolters Kluwer-Medknow.

Swathi K.,RIMS | Nasar Ahamed R.,RIMS
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research | Year: 2014

Background: Alcohol is a cardiotoxin for over a hundred of years. The heavy alcohol consumption is associated with a type of non ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy termed alcoholic cardiomyopathy. The prevalence of cardiac deceases and other electrocardiographic changes occurring in these clinical situations is not well studied. Methods: The 200 alcoholic people age above 20 years selected and same age of non alcoholic people of same age. The ECG were recorded in lying down and resting position. The ECG results were analysed for Heart rate, P wave, PR interval, QRS duration, QTC interval, ST segment, T wave, TP interval and frontal axis. Results: The heart rate beets were in non-alcoholic was 74.86±7.98 and alcohols was 82.19±8.20, duration was 0.092±0.009 and alcoholics was 0.089±0.018. P wave amplitude was 1.06±0.16 in non-alcoholics and 1.02±0.28 in alcoholics. P-R interval in seconds it was 0.147±0.05 in non-alcoholics and 0.135±0.04 in alcoholics. QRS in seconds it was 0.78±0.02 in non-alcoholics and 0.057±0.02 in alcoholics. Qtc interval in seconds was 0.414±0.08 in non-alcoholics and 0.413±0.09 in alcoholics. T wave was 100% normal in nonalcoholics and 94% normal in alcoholics, T wave was abnormal in 6% of alcoholics. ORS frontal axis in degrees was 53.0±24.7 in nonalcoholic and 45.9±21.8 in alcoholics. Conclusion: The present study shows alcoholics are more porn to cardio vascular diseases, the early finding of ECG abnormalities helpful to prevent cardiac diseases. © 2014, J. Pharm. Sci. & Res.All right reserved.

Samatha P.,RIMS | Venkateswarlu M.,RIMS | Siva Prabodh V.,NRIMS
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2012

Introduction: Dyslipidaemia is one of the common disorders which is seen in most of the diabetes patients, which causes cardio vascular disorders.This study was conducted to compare the lipid profile of diabetic patients and healthy controls. Methods: The lipid profiles and the fasting blood sugar values of 160 known diabetics and 160 healthy subjects were studied. Their serum samples were assessed for fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by using standard biochemical methods. Results: The mean total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, LDL-C and the fasting blood sugar levels were highly significant in the diabetics as compared to those in the controls. The mean HDL-C concentration was non significantly lower in female diabetics as compared to that in the male diabetics. The correlation studies showed a non significant negative correlation of FBG with HDL-C and a positive correlation of FBG with TC, TG and LDL-C. Conclusion: The frequencies of the high TC, high TG and high LDL-C levels were higher in the diabetic group, thus indicating that diabetic patients were more prone for dyslipidaemia, which could cause cardiovascular disorders.

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Metri B.C.,BLDEUs Shri B M Patil Medical College | Jyothi P.,BLDEUs Shri B M Patil Medical College | Peerapur B.V.,RIMS
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2011

Background: Recently, the isolation of this pathogen in hospital settings is increasing and multidrug-resistant strains are emerging; these strains present a challenge for clinician and the clinical microbiologist because of their increased occurrence in nosocomial infection. The current study was done to find out the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Citrobacter species from various clinical specimens. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from patients in accordance with standard protocols. Citrobacter species were identified by conventional biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was done by disc diffusion method according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) recommendations. Results: Out of 563 isolates of Citrobacter, majority were from pus (48.1%), followed by urine (24.3%), sputum (20.3%), body fluids (05.2%), blood (02.1%). C. koseri was the predominant species [391 (70%)] isolated. Infection was nosocomialy acquired in 493 (87.4%) patients. The mean age was 39.5 years. Anti-biograms of Citrobacter isolates revealed that effective agent against Citrobacter isolates was imipenem (91.8% sensitive), followed by piperacillin/tazobactam (58.3%) and amikacin (53.4%). Conclusion: Citrobacter isolates resistant to multiple anti-microbial agents have emerged, including strains resistant to imipenem, making it an emerging nosocomial pathogen. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that surveillance of anti-microbial resistance in Citrobacter is necessary. Antibiotic policy should be formulated in the hospital. Depending on the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the Citrobacter isolates, antibiotics should be used, and proper infection control measures should be strictly followed to prevent spread of this pathogen.

Pujari V.M.,R.I.M.S. | Suryakar A.N.,Dr Vm Government Medical College | Ireddy S.,R.I.M.S.
Biomedical Research | Year: 2010

The imbalance in to oxidants and antioxidants leads to the condition called oxidative stress. The oxidative stress is considered as one of the etiopathological factors for development and /or exacerbation of psoriasis. Therefore we undertook this study to determine serum levels of oxidants (Malondialdehyde MDA, Nitric oxide NO) and antioxidants (Total Antioxidant Status TAS, Superoxide Dismutase SOD) and it's correlation with severity of psoriasis. In present research work we have studied 90 clinically diagnosed psoriasis patients and 90 age and sex matched healthy control subjects. Our results showed increased concentration of oxidants; MDA, NO, and decreased concentration of TAS as well as activity of SOD in the serum of psoriasis patients. Observations of our study clearly indicate positive correlation of increasing serum oxidants and negative correlation of decreasing serum antioxidants with PASI scour i.e. severity of psoriasis.

Mudium R.,RIMS | Kolasani B.,RIMS
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2014

Aims and objectives: The study was aimed to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of hydro-alcoholic seed extract of croton tiglium in rats and mice. Materials and Methods: Forty eight each of rats and mice of either sex were randomised into four groups and subjected to seizures induced by electroconvulsiometer and pentylenetetrazole. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of croton tiglium (250 and 500mg/kg) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect using sodium valproate (200mg/kg) as standard and distilled water as control. The parameters observed were time for onset of HLE (Hind Limb Extension) and duration of HLE in electrically induced seizures, and time for onset of convulsions and duration of convulsions in chemically induced seizures. Mortality of the animals over 24 hours was observed in both the models. For testing statistical significance between various groups unpaired student t-test was used. Observations and Results: In electrically induced seizures croton tiglium produced dose dependant prolongation of time for onset of HLE and a reduction in duration of HLE and in chemically induced convulsions, it prolonged time for onset of convulsions and reduced the duration of convulsions indicating its anticonvulsant effect in both models. However anticonvulsant effect was less compared to sodium valproate. There was a higher percentage of mortality in croton tiglium group in chemically induced convulsions when compared to sodium valproate. Conclusion: Croton tiglium has dose dependant anticonvulsant effect in electrically induced seizures, while in pentylenetetrazole induced seizures the protection is very minimal.

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