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New York, NY, United States

Rimed snow refers to snowflakes that are partially or completely coated in tiny frozen water droplets called 'rime'. Rime forms on a snowflake when it passes through a super-cooled cloud. Snowflakes that are heavily rimed typically produce very heavy and wet snow, with snow to liquid ratios in the 5-1 to 9-1 range.Rimed snow has been found to provide greater initial stability for a snow layer. However, it also allows thicker, and therefore less stable, snow layers to build up. It could be argued that these cancel each other out.There has been research into the effect of rimed snow on avalanches. Wikipedia.


Sepe S.,Erasmus Medical Center | Payan-Gomez C.,Erasmus Medical Center | Payan-Gomez C.,El Rosario University | Milanese C.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
DNA Repair | Year: 2013

Impaired DNA repair involving the nucleotide excision repair (NER)/transcription-coupled repair (TCR) pathway cause human pathologies associated with severe neurological symptoms. These clinical observations suggest that defective NER/TCR might also play a critical role in chronic neurodegenerative disorders (ND), such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Involvement of NER/TCR in these disorders is also substantiated by the evidence that aging constitutes the principal risk factor for chronic ND and that this DNA repair mechanism is very relevant for the aging process itself. Our understanding of the exact role of NER/TCR in chronic ND, however, is extremely rudimentary; while there is no doubt that defective NER/TCR can lead to neuronal death, evidence for its participation in the etiopathogenesis of ND is inconclusive thus far. Here we summarize the experimental observations supporting a role for NER/TCR in chronic ND and suggest questions and lines of investigation that might help in addressing this important issue. We also present a preliminary yet unprecedented meta-analysis on human brain microarray data to understand the expression levels of the various NER factors in the anatomical areas relevant for chronic ND pathogenesis. In summary, this review intends to highlight elements supporting a role of NER/TCR in these devastating disorders and to propose potential strategies of investigation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Lee J.J.,University of Pittsburgh | D'Ancona G.,Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies ISMETT | Amaducci A.,Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies ISMETT | Follis F.,Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies ISMETT | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cardiac Surgery | Year: 2014

Thoracic aortic diseases are life-threatening conditions causing significant mortality and morbidity despite advances in diagnostic and surgical treatments. Computational methods combined with imaging techniques provide quantitative information of disease progression, which may improve clinical treatments and therapeutic strategies for clinical practice. Since hemodynamic and wall mechanics play important roles in the natural history and progression of aortic diseases, we reviewed the potential application of computational modeling of the thoracic aorta. We placed emphasis on the clinical relevance of these techniques for the assessment of aortic dissection, thoracic aortic aneurysm, and aortic coarctation. Current clinical guidelines and treatment are also described. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Francipane M.G.,McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine | Francipane M.G.,Rimed | Lagasse E.,McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Oncotarget | Year: 2013

Metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) is incurable for most patients. Since mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been suggested as a crucial modulator of tumor biology, we aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of mTOR targeting for CRC therapy. To this purpose, we analyzed mTOR expression and the effect of mTOR inhibition in cancer stem-like cells isolated from three human metastatic CRCs (CoCSCs). CoCSCs exhibited a strong mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) expression, and a rare expression of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). This latter correlated with differentiation, being expressed in CoCSC-derived xenografts. We indicate Serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) as the possible main mTORC2 effector in CoCSCs, as highlighted by the negative effect on cancer properties following its knockdown. mTOR inhibitors affected CoCSCs differently, resulting in proliferation, autophagy as well as apoptosis induction. The apoptosis-inducing mTOR inhibitor Torin-1 hindered growth, motility, invasion, and survival of CoCSCs in vitro, and suppressed tumor growth in vivo with a concomitant reduction in vessel formation. Torin-1 also affected the expression of markers for cell proliferation, angio-/lympho-genesis, and stemness in vivo, including Ki67, DLL1, DLL4, Notch, Lgr5, and CD44. Importantly, Torin-1 did not affect the survival of normal colon stem cells in vivo, suggesting its selectivity towards cancer cells. Thus, we propose Torin-1 as a powerful drug candidate for metastatic CRC therapy. Source


Giani T.,University of Siena | Conte V.,University of Siena | Mandala S.,Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies ISMETT | D'Andrea M.M.,University of Siena | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2014

We describe two cases of bacteremic infections caused by a multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate producing the OXA-48 carbapenemase that occurred in two solid organ transplant (liver and kidney) recipients, which was apparently transmitted with the allografts. This finding underscores the risk of donor-derived infections by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens in solid organ transplant recipients and emphasizes the need for rapid screening of organ donors for carriage of similar pathogens. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Marigliano M.,Rangos Research Center | Marigliano M.,Regional Center for Diabetes in Children and Adolescents | Bertera S.,Rangos Research Center | Grupillo M.,Rangos Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Current Diabetes Reports | Year: 2011

The therapy of type 1 diabetes is an open challenging problem. The restoration of normoglycemia and insulin independence in immunosuppressed type 1 diabetic recipients of islet allotransplantation has shown the potential of a cell-based diabetes therapy. Even if successful, this approach poses a problem of scarce tissue supply. Xenotransplantation can be the answer to this limited donor availability and, among possible candidate tissues for xenotransplantation, porcine islets are the closest to a future clinical application. Xenotransplantation, with pigs as donors, offers the possibility of using healthy, living, and genetically modified islets from pathogen-free animals available in unlimited number of islets. Several studies in the pig-to-nonhuman primate model demonstrated the feasibility of successful preclinical islet xenotransplantation and have provided insights into the critical events and possible mechanisms of immune recognition and rejection of xenogeneic islet grafts. Particularly promising results in the achievement of prolonged insulin independence were obtained with newly developed, genetically modified pigs islets able to produce immunoregulatory products, using different implantation sites, and new immunotherapeutic strategies. Nonetheless, further efforts are needed to generate additional safety and efficacy data in nonhuman primate models to safely translate these findings into the clinic. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. Source

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