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Indianapolis, IN, United States

Lu X.-L.,Harbin Medical University | Lu X.-L.,Riley Heart Research Center | Lu X.-L.,Indiana University | Xu W.-X.,Harbin Medical University | And 11 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Nodose ganglia are composed of A-, Ah- and C-type neurons. Despite their important roles in regulating visceral afferent function, including cardiovascular, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal homeostasis, information about subtype-specific expression, molecular identity, and function of individual ion transporting proteins is scarce. Although experiments utilizing the sliced ganglion preparation have provided valuable insights into the electrophysiological properties of nodose ganglion neuron subtypes, detailed characterization of their electrical phenotypes will require measurements in isolated cells. One major unresolved problem, however, is the difficulty to unambiguously identify the subtype of isolated nodose ganglion neurons without current-clamp recording, because the magnitude of conduction velocity in the corresponding afferent fiber, a reliable marker to discriminate subtypes in situ, can no longer be determined. Here, we present data supporting the notion that application of an algorithm regarding to microscopic structural characteristics, such as neuron shape evaluated by the ratio between shortest and longest axis, neuron surface characteristics, like membrane roughness, and axon attachment, enables specific and sensitive subtype identification of acutely dissociated rat nodose ganglion neurons, by which the accuracy of identification is further validated by electrophysiological markers and overall positive predictive rates is 89.26% (90.04%, 76.47%, and 98.21% for A-, Ah, and C-type, respectively). This approach should aid in gaining insight into the molecular correlates underlying phenotypic heterogeneity of nodose ganglia. Additionally, several critical points that help for neuron identification and afferent conduction calibration are also discussed. © Ivyspring International Publisher.

Barnes R.M.,Wells Center for Pediatric Research | Firulli B.A.,Wells Center for Pediatric Research | Vandusen N.J.,Wells Center for Pediatric Research | Morikawa Y.,Tulane University | And 5 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2011

Rationale: The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors Hand1 and Hand2 are essential for embryonic development. Given their requirement for cardiogenesis, it is imperative to determine their impact on cardiovascular function. Objective: To deduce the role of Hand2 within the epicardium. Zmethod and Results: We engineered a Hand1 allele expressing Cre recombinase. Cardiac Hand1 expression is largely limited to cells of the primary heart field, overlapping little with Hand2 expression. Hand1 is expressed within the septum transversum, and the Hand1 lineage marks the proepicardial organ and epicardium. To examine Hand factor functional overlap, we conditionally deleted Hand2 from Hand1-expressing cells. Hand2 mutants display defective epicardialization and fail to form coronary arteries, coincident with altered extracellular matrix deposition and Pdgfr expression. Conclusions: These data demonstrate a hierarchal relationship whereby transient Hand1 septum transversum expression defines epicardial precursors that are subsequently dependent on Hand2 function. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.

Zhang W.,Riley Heart Research Center | Chen H.,Riley Heart Research Center | Wang Y.,Riley Heart Research Center | Yong W.,Riley Heart Research Center | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011

Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP10) belongs to the TGFβ-superfamily. Previously, we had demonstrated that BMP10 is a key regulator for ventricular chamber formation, growth, and maturation. Ablation of BMP10 leads to hypoplastic ventricular wall formation, and elevated levels of BMP10 are associated with abnormal ventricular trabeculation/compaction and wall maturation. However, the molecular mechanism( s) by which BMP10 regulates ventricle wall growth and maturation is still largely unknown. In this study, we sought to identify the specific transcriptional network that is potentially mediated by BMP10. We analyzed and compared the gene expression profiles between α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC)- BMP10 transgenic hearts and nontransgenic littermate controls using Affymetrix mouse exon arrays. T-box 20 (Tbx20), a cardiac transcription factor, was significantly up-regulated in αMHC-BMP10 transgenic hearts, which was validated by quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Ablation of BMP10 reduced Tbx20 expression specifically in the BMP10-expressing region of the developing ventricle. In vitro promoter analysis demonstrated that BMP10 was able to induce Tbx20 promoter activity through a conserved Smad binding site in the Tbx20 promoter proximal region. Furthermore, overexpression of Tbx20 in myocardium led to dilated cardiomyopathy that exhibited ventricular hypertrabeculation and an abnormal muscular septum, which phenocopied genetically modified mice with elevated BMP10 levels. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the BMP10-Tbx20 signaling cascade is important for ventricular wall development and maturation. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Zhu W.,Riley Heart Research Center | Zhang W.,Riley Heart Research Center | Shou W.,Riley Heart Research Center | Field L.J.,Riley Heart Research Center | Field L.J.,Indiana University
Cardiovascular Research | Year: 2014

Aims Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective anti-cancer therapeutic, but is associated with both acute and late-stage cardiotoxicity. Children are particularly sensitive to DOX-induced heart failure. Here, the impact of p53 inhibition on acute vs. late-stage DOX cardiotoxicity was examined in a juvenile model. Methods and results Two-week-old MHC-CB7 mice (which express dominant-interfering p53 in cardiomyocytes) and their non-transgenic (NON-TXG) littermates received weekly DOX injections for 5 weeks (25 mg/kg cumulative dose). One week after the last DOX treatment (acute stage), MHC-CB7 mice exhibited improved cardiac function and lower levels of cardiomyocyte apoptosis when compared with the NON-TXG mice. Surprisingly, by 13 weeks following the last DOX treatment (late stage), MHC-CB7 exhibited a progressive decrease in cardiac function and higher rates of cardiomyocyte apoptosis when compared with NON-TXG mice. p53 inhibition blocked transient DOX-induced STAT3 activation in MHC-CB7 mice, which was associated with enhanced induction of the DNA repair proteins Ku70 and Ku80. Mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted deletion of STAT3 exhibited worse cardiac function, higher levels of cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and a greater induction of Ku70 and Ku80 in response to DOX treatment during the acute stage when compared with control animals. Conclusion These data support a model wherein a p53-dependent cardioprotective pathway, mediated via STAT3 activation, mitigates DOX-induced myocardial stress during drug delivery. Furthermore, these data suggest an explanation as to how p53 inhibition can result in cardioprotection during drug treatment and, paradoxically, enhanced cardiotoxicity long after the cessation of drug treatment. © 2014 Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014.

Lee S.-H.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Lee S.-H.,Catholic University of Korea | Huang H.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Huang H.,East Carolina University | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Rho kinase (ROCK) isoforms regulate insulin signaling and glucose metabolism negatively or positively in cultured cell lines and skeletal muscle. However, the in vivo function of the ROCK1 isoform in adipose tissue has not been addressed. To determine the specific role of the adipose ROCK1 isoform in the development of insulin resistance and obesity, mice lacking ROCK1 in adipose tissue globally or selectively were studied. Here, we show that insulin's ability to activate IRS-1/PI3K/Akt signaling was greatly enhanced in adipose tissue of ROCK1-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. These effects resulted from the inhibitory effect of ROCK1 on insulin receptor action, as evidenced by the fact that IR tyrosine phosphorylation was abolished in ROCK1-/- MEF cells when ROCK1 was reexpressed. Consistently, adipose-specific disruption of ROCK1 increased IR tyrosine phosphorylation in adipose tissue and modestly improved sensitivity to insulin in obese mice induced by high-fat feeding. This effect is independent of any changes in adiposity, number or size of adipocytes, and metabolic parameters, including glucose, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels, demonstrating a minimal effect of adipose ROCK1 on whole body metabolism. Enzymatic activity of ROCK1 in adipose tissue remained ~50%, which likely originated from the fraction of stromal vascular cells, suggesting involvement of these cells for adipose metabolic regulation. Moreover, ROCK isoform activities were increased in adipose tissue of diet-induced or genetically obese mice. These data suggest that adipose ROCK1 isoform plays an inhibtory role for the regulation of insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity in vivo. © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

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