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Forsdahl S.H.,University of Tromso | Solberg S.,Rikshospitalet | Singh K.,University of Tromso | Jacobsen B.K.,University of Tromso
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2010

Background: In a population-based study in Tromsø, Norway, the authors assessed whether an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) or the maximal infrarenal aortic diameter in a non-aneurismal aorta influence total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Methods: A total of 6640 men and women, aged 25-84 years, were included in a 10-year mortality follow-up: 345 subjects with a diagnosed AAA and 6295 subjects with a non-aneurismal aorta. Non-aneurismal aortic diameter and prevalent AAAs were categorized into seven groups. Results: In subjects without an AAA, an aortic diameter ≥30 mm increased age- and sex-adjusted total mortality [mortality rate ratio (MRR) = 3.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.77-7.89] and CVD mortality (MRR = 9.24, 95% CI 4.07-20.97) compared with subjects with aortic diameter of 21-23 mm. An AAA at screening was strongly associated with deaths from aortic aneurysm and was associated with total (MRR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.31-1.96) and CVD mortality (MRR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.81-3.21). This was not explained by deaths due to an AAA. Adjustments for CVD risk factors could fully explain the increased total, but not CVD mortality in subjects with an AAA. Conclusions: An AAA increases total and CVD mortality. In the large majority of subjects with a non-aneurysmal aorta, the diameter does not influence total or CVD mortality. However, in individuals with a maximal diameter >26 mm (2% of the population), a positive relationship is found. © The Author 2009; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association. Source


Kreukels B.P.C.,VU University Amsterdam | Haraldsen I.R.,Rikshospitalet | De Cuypere G.,Ghent University | Richter-Appelt H.,University of Hamburg | And 2 more authors.
European Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Studies on diagnostic subtypes of gender identity disorder (GID) or gender incongruence (GI), comorbidity and treatment outcome show considerable variability in results. Clinic/country specific factors may account for the contradictory results, but these factors have never been studied. This article is the first of a series reporting on a unique collaborative study of four European gender identity clinics (the European network for the investigation of gender incongruence [ENIGI]). Here, we present the diagnostic procedures of the four clinics (Amsterdam, Ghent, Hamburg, and Oslo), the standard battery of instruments, and the first results regarding applicants with GI who seek treatment. Applicants in the four clinics did not differ in living situation, employment status, sexual orientation, and age of onset of GI feelings. However, the Amsterdam and Ghent clinic were visited by a majority of natal males, whereas Hamburg and Oslo see more natal females. Male applicants were older than female applicants within each country, but female applicants in one country were sometimes older than male applicants in another country. Also, educational level differed between applicants of the four clinics. These data indicate that certain sociodemographic and/or cultural characteristics of applicants have to be taken into account in future studies. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source


Solberg S.,Rikshospitalet | Forsdahl S.H.,University of Tromso | Singh K.,University of Tromso | Jacobsen B.K.,University of Tromso
European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery | Year: 2010

Objectives: We aim to study whether the diameter of the non-aneurysmatic infrarenal aorta influences the risk for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and whether the larger diameter in men can explain the male predominance in AAA. Design: This is a population-based follow-up study. Materials and methods: In 4265 men and women with a normal-sized aorta in 1994-1995, 116 incident cases of AAA were diagnosed 7 years later. The risk of an incident AAA was analysed in a multiple logistic regression model according to baseline maximal infrarenal aortic diameter, adjusted for known risk factors. Results: Compared with subjects with aortic diameter in the 21-23 mm bracket, men and women with a diameter <18 mm and ≥27 mm had an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-0.88) and 4.22 (95% CI: 1.94-9.19), respectively, for an incident AAA. When adjusted for age and baseline aortic diameter, male sex was not statistically significantly associated with the incidence of AAA (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 0.93-2.30, P = 0.10). Conclusions: Increased baseline diameter of the infrarenal aorta was a highly significant, strong and independent risk factor for developing an AAA. The larger aortic diameter in men than in women may be the most important explanation for the higher AAA risk in men. © 2009 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Source


Heylens G.,Ghent University | Elaut E.,Ghent University | Kreukels B.P.C.,VU University Amsterdam | Paap M.C.S.,University of Hamburg | And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Background: Research into the relationship between gender identity disorder and psychiatric problems has shown contradictory results. Aims: To investigate psychiatric problems in adults fulfilling DSM-IV-TR criteria for a diagnosis of gender identity disorder. Method: Data were collected within the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview - Plus and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (n = 305). Results: In 38% of the individuals with gender identity disorder a current DSM-IV-TR Axis I diagnosis was found, mainly affective disorders and anxiety disorders. Furthermore, almost 70% had a current and lifetime diagnosis. All four countries showed a similar prevalence, except for affective and anxiety disorders, and no difference was found between individuals with early-onset and late-onset disorder. An Axis II diagnosis was found in 15% of all individuals with gender identity disorder, which is comparable to the general population. Conclusions: People with gender identity disorder show more psychiatric problems than the general population; mostly affective and anxiety problems are found. Source


Jensen K.,The Intervention Center | Jensen K.,University of Oslo | Martinsen A.C.T.,The Intervention Center | Martinsen A.C.T.,University of Oslo | And 4 more authors.
European Radiology | Year: 2014

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate lesion conspicuity achieved with five different iterative reconstruction techniques from four CT vendors at three different dose levels. Comparisons were made of iterative algorithm and filtered back projection (FBP) among and within systems.Methods: An anthropomorphic liver phantom was examined with four CT systems, each from a different vendor. CTDIvol levels of 5 mGy, 10 mGy and 15 mGy were chosen. Images were reconstructed with FBP and the iterative algorithm on the system. Images were interpreted independently by four observers, and the areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) were calculated. Noise and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were measured.Results: One iterative algorithm increased AUC (0.79, 0.95, and 0.97) compared to FBP (0.70, 0.86, and 0.93) at all dose levels (p < 0.001 and p = 0.047). Another algorithm increased AUC from 0.78 with FBP to 0.84 (p = 0.007) at 5 mGy. Differences at 10 and 15 mGy were not significant (p-values: 0.084–0.883). Three algorithms showed no difference in AUC compared to FBP (p-values: 0.008–1.000). All of the algorithms decreased noise (10–71 %) and improved CNR.Conclusions: Only two algorithms improved lesion detection, even though noise reduction was shown with all algorithms.Key Points: • Iterative reconstruction algorithms affected lesion detection differently at different dose levels.• One iterative algorithm improved lesion detectability compared to filtered back projection.• Three algorithms did not significantly improve lesion detectability.• One algorithm improved lesion detectability at the lowest dose level. © 2014, European Society of Radiology. Source

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