RIKILT Wageningen UR Institute of Food Safety

Wageningen, Netherlands

RIKILT Wageningen UR Institute of Food Safety

Wageningen, Netherlands
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Mattarozzi M.,University of Parma | Suman M.,Barilla G. R. F.lli SpA | Cascio C.,RIKILT Wageningen UR Institute of Food Safety | Calestani D.,CNR Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism | And 4 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2016

Estimating consumer exposure to nanomaterials (NMs) in food products and predicting their toxicological properties are necessary steps in the assessment of the risks of this technology. To this end, analytical methods have to be available to detect, characterize and quantify NMs in food and materials related to food, e.g. food packaging and biological samples following metabolization of food. The challenge for the analytical sciences is that the characterization of NMs requires chemical as well as physical information. This article offers a comprehensive analysis of methods available for the detection and characterization of NMs in food and related products. Special attention was paid to the crucial role of sample preparation methods since these have been partially neglected in the scientific literature so far. The currently available instrumental methods are grouped as fractionation, counting and ensemble methods, and their advantages and limitations are discussed. We conclude that much progress has been made over the last 5 years but that many challenges still exist. Future perspectives and priority research needs are pointed out. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


PubMed | Barilla G. R. F.lli SpA, RIKILT Wageningen UR Institute of Food Safety, University of Parma and CNR Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism
Type: Review | Journal: Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry | Year: 2016

Estimating consumer exposure to nanomaterials (NMs) in food products and predicting their toxicological properties are necessary steps in the assessment of the risks of this technology. To this end, analytical methods have to be available to detect, characterize and quantify NMs in food and materials related to food, e.g. food packaging and biological samples following metabolization of food. The challenge for the analytical sciences is that the characterization of NMs requires chemical as well as physical information. This article offers a comprehensive analysis of methods available for the detection and characterization of NMs in food and related products. Special attention was paid to the crucial role of sample preparation methods since these have been partially neglected in the scientific literature so far. The currently available instrumental methods are grouped as fractionation, counting and ensemble methods, and their advantages and limitations are discussed. We conclude that much progress has been made over the last 5years but that many challenges still exist. Future perspectives and priority research needs are pointed out. Graphical Abstract Two possible analytical strategies for the sizing and quantification of Nanoparticles: Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation with multiple detectors (allows the determination of true size and mass-based particle size distribution); Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (allows the determination of a spherical equivalent diameter of the particle and a number-based particle size distribution).


Aqai P.,RIKILT Wageningen UR Institute of Food Safety | Blesa N.G.,RIKILT Wageningen UR Institute of Food Safety | Major H.,Waters Corporation | Pedotti M.,Institute for Research in Biomedicine | And 5 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

A high-throughput bioaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (BioMS) approach was developed and applied for the screening and identification of recombinant human estrogen receptor α (ERα) ligands in dietary supplements. For screening, a semi-automated mass spectrometric ligand binding assay was developed applying 13C2, 15 N-tamoxifen as non-radioactive label and fast ultra-high-performance-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-triple-quadrupole-MS (UPLC-QqQ-MS), operated in the single reaction monitoring mode, as a readout system. Binding of the label to ERα-coated paramagnetic microbeads was inhibited by competing estrogens in the sample extract yielding decreased levels of the label in UPLC-QqQ-MS. The label showed high ionisation efficiency in positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode, so the developed BioMS approach is able to screen for estrogens in dietary supplements despite their poor ionisation efficiency in both positive and negative ESI modes. The assay was performed in a 96-well plate, and all these wells could be measured within 3 h. Estrogens in suspect extracts were identified by full-scan accurate mass and collision-cross section (CCS) values from a UPLC-ion mobility-Q-time-of-flight-MS (UPLC-IM-Q-ToF-MS) equipped with a novel atmospheric pressure ionisation source. Thanks to the novel ion source, this instrument provided picogram sensitivity for estrogens in the negative ion mode and an additional identification point (experimental CCS values) next to retention time, accurate mass and tandem mass spectrometry data. The developed combination of bioaffinity screening with UPLC-QqQ-MS and identification with UPLC-IM-Q-ToF-MS provides an extremely powerful analytical tool for early warning of ERα bioactive compounds in dietary supplements as demonstrated by analysis of selected dietary supplements in which different estrogens were identified. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Bienenmann-Ploum M.E.,RIKILT Wageningen UR Institute of Food Safety | Vincent U.,European Commission | Campbell K.,Queen's University of Belfast | Huet A.-C.,Center dEconomie Rurale Groupe | And 6 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Coccidiostats are authorized in the European Union (EU) to be used as poultry feed additives. Maximum (residue) levels (M(R)Ls) have been set within the EU for consumer and animal protection against unintended carry-over, and monitoring is compulsory. This paper describes the single-laboratory validation of a previously developed multiplex flow cytometric immunoassay (FCIA) as screening method for coccidiostats in eggs and feed and provides and compares different approaches for the calculation of the cut-off levels which are not described in detail within Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Comparable results were obtained between the statistical (reference) approach and the rapid approaches. With the most rapid approach, the cut-off levels for narasin/salinomycin, lasalocid, diclazuril, nicarbazin (DNC) and monensin in egg, calculated as percentages of inhibition (%B/B0), were 60, 32, 76, 80 and 84, respectively. In feed, the cut-off levels for narasin/salinomycin, lasalocid, nicarbazin (DNC) and monensin were 70, 64, 72 and 78, respectively, and could not be determined for diclazuril. For all analytes, except for diclazuril in feed, the rate of false positives (false non-compliant) in blank samples was lower than 1 %, and the rate of false negatives (false compliant) at the M(R)Ls was below 5 %. Additionally, very good correlations (r ranging from 0.994 to 0.9994) were observed between two different analysers, a sophisticated flow cytometer (FlexMAP 3D®) and a more cost-efficient and transportable planar imaging detector (MAGPIX®), hence demonstrating adequate transferability. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | RIKILT Wageningen UR Institute of Food Safety
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: The Analyst | Year: 2014

Mycotoxins are produced by fungi as secondary metabolites. They often multi-contaminate food and feed commodities posing a health risk to humans and animals. A fast and easy to apply multiplex screening of these commodities could be useful to detect multi-contamination. For this, we developed a semi-quantitative 6-plex immunoassay using a suspension array of paramagnetic colour-coded microspheres combined with imaging planar array detection for the mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, T2-toxin, HT-2 toxin and fumonisin B1. Mycotoxin specific monoclonal antibodies were coupled to different sets of microspheres and mycotoxins conjugated to the fluorescent protein R-phycoerythrin served as reporter molecules. Competition between free mycotoxins in the sample and mixed reporter molecules for antibody binding sites on mixed microspheres created a multiplex direct inhibition immunoassay. The reagents were selected for no or low cross-interactions between the assays and cross-reactions with metabolites and possible masked forms were determined. A within-laboratory validation was carried out using blank and spiked barley samples. Furthermore, the 6-plex was used to screen available barley, and malted barley, reference materials. The validation showed very high inter and intra-day precision for all samples with a maximum relative standard deviation value of 10%. The screening assay allows easy and rapid multiplex detection of the target mycotoxins in barley according to EU legislation. With a cut off factor of 50%, based on the EU maximum levels, we were able to screen at 2 g kg(-1) for aflatoxin B1, 2.5 g kg(-1) for ochratoxin A, 625 g kg(-1) for deoxynivalenol, 50 g kg(-1) for zearalenone, 1000 g kg(-1) for fumonisin B1 and 25 g kg(-1) for T-2 toxin. Thanks to the transportable planar array system, the developed 6-plex has potential for future on-site testing. Future implementation of this method as a pre-screening tool, prior to instrumental analysis, is highly attractive since costly LC-MS/MS analysis of samples below the maximum levels can be avoided.


PubMed | RIKILT Wageningen UR Institute of Food Safety
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry | Year: 2013

Coccidiostats are authorized in the European Union (EU) to be used as poultry feed additives. Maximum (residue) levels (M(R)Ls) have been set within the EU for consumer and animal protection against unintended carry-over, and monitoring is compulsory. This paper describes the single-laboratory validation of a previously developed multiplex flow cytometric immunoassay (FCIA) as screening method for coccidiostats in eggs and feed and provides and compares different approaches for the calculation of the cut-off levels which are not described in detail within Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Comparable results were obtained between the statistical (reference) approach and the rapid approaches. With the most rapid approach, the cut-off levels for narasin/salinomycin, lasalocid, diclazuril, nicarbazin (DNC) and monensin in egg, calculated as percentages of inhibition (%B/B0), were 60, 32, 76, 80 and 84, respectively. In feed, the cut-off levels for narasin/salinomycin, lasalocid, nicarbazin (DNC) and monensin were 70, 64, 72 and 78, respectively, and could not be determined for diclazuril. For all analytes, except for diclazuril in feed, the rate of false positives (false non-compliant) in blank samples was lower than 1 %, and the rate of false negatives (false compliant) at the M(R)Ls was below 5 %. Additionally, very good correlations (r ranging from 0.994 to 0.9994) were observed between two different analysers, a sophisticated flow cytometer (FlexMAP 3D()) and a more cost-efficient and transportable planar imaging detector (MAGPIX()), hence demonstrating adequate transferability.


PubMed | RIKILT Wageningen UR Institute of Food Safety
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry | Year: 2013

A high-throughput bioaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (BioMS) approach was developed and applied for the screening and identification of recombinant human estrogen receptor (ER) ligands in dietary supplements. For screening, a semi-automated mass spectrometric ligand binding assay was developed applying (13)C2, (15)N-tamoxifen as non-radioactive label and fast ultra-high-performance-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-triple-quadrupole-MS (UPLC-QqQ-MS), operated in the single reaction monitoring mode, as a readout system. Binding of the label to ER-coated paramagnetic microbeads was inhibited by competing estrogens in the sample extract yielding decreased levels of the label in UPLC-QqQ-MS. The label showed high ionisation efficiency in positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode, so the developed BioMS approach is able to screen for estrogens in dietary supplements despite their poor ionisation efficiency in both positive and negative ESI modes. The assay was performed in a 96-well plate, and all these wells could be measured within 3 h. Estrogens in suspect extracts were identified by full-scan accurate mass and collision-cross section (CCS) values from a UPLC-ion mobility-Q-time-of-flight-MS (UPLC-IM-Q-ToF-MS) equipped with a novel atmospheric pressure ionisation source. Thanks to the novel ion source, this instrument provided picogram sensitivity for estrogens in the negative ion mode and an additional identification point (experimental CCS values) next to retention time, accurate mass and tandem mass spectrometry data. The developed combination of bioaffinity screening with UPLC-QqQ-MS and identification with UPLC-IM-Q-ToF-MS provides an extremely powerful analytical tool for early warning of ER bioactive compounds in dietary supplements as demonstrated by analysis of selected dietary supplements in which different estrogens were identified.

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