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Ludwig S.K.J.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Smits N.G.E.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Cannizzo F.T.,University of Turin | Nielen M.W.F.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Nielen M.W.F.,Wageningen University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Targeted protein biomarker profiling is suggested as a fast screening approach for detection of illegal hormone treatment in meat production. The advantage of using biomarkers is that they mark the biological response and, thus, are responsive to a panel of substances with similar effects. In a preliminary feasibility study, a 4-plex protein biomarker flow cytometric immunoassay (FCIA) previously developed for the detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) was applied to cattle treated with steroids, such as estradiol, dexamethasone, and prednisolone. Each treatment resulted in a specific plasma biomarker profile for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein 2, osteocalcin, and anti-rbST antibodies, which could be distinguished from the profile of untreated animals. In summary, the 4-plex biomarker FCIA is, apart from rbST, also capable of detecting treatment with other growth-promoting agents and therefore clearly shows the potential of biomarker profiling as a screening method in veterinary control. It is proposed to perform additional validation studies covering high numbers of treated and untreated animals to support inclusion or adaptation of protein biomarker approaches in future monitoring regulations. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Lehotay S.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Sapozhnikova Y.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Mol H.G.J.,RIKILT Wageningen UR
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

Although quantitative analytical methods must be empirically validated prior to their use in a variety of applications, including regulatory monitoring of chemical adulterants in foods, validation of qualitative method performance for the analytes and matrices of interest is frequently ignored, or general guidelines are assumed to be true for specific situations. Just as in the case of quantitative method validation, acceptable method performance criteria should be established for qualitative analysis purposes to suit the analytical needs for given applications, and empirical method validation should be conducted to demonstrate the qualitative performance capabilities the method. This critical review article is intended to describe and discuss recent developments with of respect to qualitative aspects in mass spectrometry, and to make recommendations for validation of qualitative methods that meet common needs for monitoring of chemical contaminants in foods. © 2015.


Kok E.J.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Pedersen J.,Technical University of Denmark | Onori R.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Sowa S.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization | And 3 more authors.
Trends in Biotechnology | Year: 2014

The principles for the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) organisms (GMOs) are harmonised worldwide to a large extent. There are, however, still differences between the European GMO regulations and the GMO regulations as they have been formulated in other parts of the world. One of these differences relates to the so-called 'stacked GM events', that is, GMOs, plants so far, where new traits are combined by conventional crossing of different GM plants. This paper advocates rethinking the current food/feed safety assessment of stacked GM events in Europe based on an analysis of different aspects that currently form the rationale for the safety assessment of stacked GM events. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Ludwig S.K.J.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Van Ginkel L.A.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Van Ginkel L.A.,EU Reference Laboratory | Nielen M.W.F.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Nielen M.W.F.,Wageningen University
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2014

There are similarities between sports doping and veterinary control. Prohibited substances (e.g., anabolic agents and peptide hormones) are similar, and immunoassays and chromatography-mass spectrometry are applied as analytical methods in both worlds. In recent years, detection strategies based on protein biomarkers were successfully developed and adopted in sports control. When measuring biomarkers, the window of detection can be extended due to a prolonged biological response, so a whole range of substances may be tackled in an indirect manner. In view of the similarities in intended biological effects, such as increased muscle mass, we envisage that biomarker-based detection may be adopted veterinary control in future. In this review, we discuss detection strategies based on protein biomarkers for biomarker discovery and method development. With the lessons learnt from successfully implementing biomarker strategies in doping regulations, we advocate adoption in the veterinary world and revision of the current restrictive regulations concerning analytical methods. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Hoang T.T.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Traag W.A.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Murk A.J.,Wageningen University | Hoogenboom R.L.A.P.,RIKILT Wageningen UR
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

Chicken and duck eggs collected from three different areas in Vietnam were examined for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). These regions included a background area, an area sprayed with Agent Orange and the Bien Hoa airbase area where Agent Orange was handled by the US Army. The latter area now is inhabited and people keep their own laying hens. Egg samples were first screened with an in vitro reporter gene bioassay and a selection was analyzed by GC/HRMS. Samples from Bien Hoa airbase showed very high PCDD/F levels, up to 249pg dioxin-equivalents (TEQ)/g fat, mainly due to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In the sprayed areas, levels (3.2-8.2pgTEQg-1) were comparable to those observed in background areas (3.2-8.2pgTEQg-1 fat). The estimated average consumption of 22gd-1 of the highly contaminated eggs will result in a 2-fold exceedance of the current exposure limits for adults and 5-fold for children, even without considering other contaminated food sources. This indicates a potential health risk from consumption of these highly contaminated eggs, which were not yet considered as a source for exposure to PCDD/Fs of people living in the highly contaminated areas. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Nielen M.W.F.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Nielen M.W.F.,Wageningen University | Van Beek T.A.,Wageningen University
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2014

Laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) does not require very flat surfaces, high-precision sample preparation, or the addition of matrix. Because of these features, LAESI-MSI may be the method of choice for spatially-resolved food analysis. In this work, LAESI time-of-flight MSI was investigated for macroscopic and microscopic imaging of pesticides, mycotoxins, and plant metabolites on rose leaves, orange and lemon fruit, ergot bodies, cherry tomatoes, and maize kernels. Accurate mass ion-map data were acquired at sampling locations with an x-y center-to-center distance of 0.2-1.0 mm and were superimposed onto co-registered optical images. The spatially-resolved ion maps of pesticides on rose leaves suggest co-application of registered and banned pesticides. Ion maps of the fungicide imazalil reveal that this compound is only localized on the peel of citrus fruit. However, according to three-dimensional LAESI-MSI the penetration depth of imazalil into the peel has significant local variation. Ion maps of different plant alkaloids on ergot bodies from rye reveal colocalization in accordancewith expectations. The feasibility of using untargeted MSI for food analysis was revealed by ion maps of plant metabolites in cherry tomatoes and maize-kernel slices. For tomatoes, traveling-wave ion mobility (TWIM) was used to discriminate between different lycoperoside glycoalkaloid isomers; for maize quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) was successfully used to elucidate the structure of a localized unknown. It is envisaged that LAESI-MSI will contribute to future research in food science, agriforensics, and plant metabolomics. © The Author(s) 2014.


Bouzembrak Y.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Marvin H.J.P.,RIKILT Wageningen UR
Food Control | Year: 2016

Because food fraud can harm human health and erode consumer trust, it is imperative that it is detected at an early stage. Therefore the aim of this study was to predict the expected food fraud type for imported products for which the product category and country of origin are known in order to target enforcement activities. For this purpose we used a Bayesian Network (BN) model that was developed based on adulteration/fraud notifications as reported in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) in the period 2000-2013. In this period 749 food fraud notifications were reported and were categorised in 6 different fraud types (i) improper, fraudulent, missing or absent health certificates, (ii) illegal importation, (iii) tampering, (iv) improper, expired, fraudulent or missing common entry documents or import declarations, (v) expiration date, (vi) mislabelling. The data were then used to develop a BN model. The constructed BN model was validated using 88 food fraud notifications reported in RASFF in 2014. The proposed model predicted 80% of food fraud types correctly when food fraud type, country and food category had been reported previously in RASFF. The model predicted 52% of all 88 food fraud types correctly when the country of origin or the product-country combination had not been recorded before in the RASFF database. The presented model can aid the risk manager/controller in border inspection posts in deciding which fraud type to check when importing products. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Bouwmeester H.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Brandhoff P.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Marvin H.J.P.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Weigel S.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Peters R.J.B.,RIKILT Wageningen UR
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Nanomaterials are developed for and applied in food, food additives, supplements and food contact materials. In an inventory of internet databases 140 products in the food and food-related sectors were identified that claim to contain nanomaterials. A great diversity of nanomaterials is applied, ranging from inorganic metal and metal oxides to organic nanomaterials that carry bioactive ingredients. Here we present an overview of nanomaterial applications that are currently available, discuss state of the art analytical chemical characterization and toxicological assessment methods, as well as categorization methods to support the safety evaluation of the application of nanomaterials throughout food production. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Helsper J.P.F.G.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Peters R.J.B.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Brouwer L.,RIKILT Wageningen UR | Weigel S.,RIKILT Wageningen UR
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

This paper describes the characterisation of liposome-type nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed in a beverage matrix. Characterisation is based on a two-step procedure: first, liposomes are separated on the basis of size in the nanometre range by use of hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC); second, chemical characterisation is performed by use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Characterisation of three types of Coatsome liposome, a commercially available type of empty liposome, was investigated. All three liposome types, Coatsome A = anionic, N = neutral, and C = cationic, gave single peaks in HDC, reflecting diameters of 153, 187, and 205 nm, respectively. Subsequent MALDI-TOF MS in positive mode furnished major signals at m/z = 734.5 ([M + H]+ adduct) and m/z = 756.6 ([M + Na]+ adduct) of l-(α)- dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monomer and dimeric adducts at m/z = 1468.1 and m/z = 1490.1, respectively. MALDI-TOF MS in negative mode gave a signal at m/z = 721.3 ([M - H]- adduct) of l-(α)- dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG), except for Coatsome C which lacks this phospholipid. After HDC separation of Coatsome A NPs the major DPPC and DPPG signals can be detected in the expected fractions by use of MALDI-TOF MS in positive and negative modes, respectively. Validation of the analytical strategy revealed linearity (R2 > 0.99), repeatability (relative standard deviation <10 %), and reproducibility (relative standard deviation between days <10 %) were good, recovery was 61 ± 5 %, and the limit of quantification was 1 mg mL-1 in this matrix. With 4 mg Coatsome A mL-1 20 out of 20 samples furnished the 734.5 and 756.6 signals typical of DPPC in MALDI-TOF MS characterisation. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


A new and improved software tool for elemental composition annotation of molecular ions detected in mass spectrometry, based on improved filtering rules followed by ultrafast querying in publicly available compound databases, is provided. Pubchem is used as a general source of 1.3 million unique chemical formulas. A plant metabolomics database containing ca. 100 ‰000 formulas is used as a source of naturally occurring compounds. Four modes with different sets of rules for heuristic filtering of candidate formulas coming from elemental composition analysis are incorporated and tested on both databases. The elemental composition analysis is then coupled to ultrafast PubChem searching based on a mass-indexed intermediate system. The performance of the filters is compared and discussed. When reactive compounds are assumed not to be present, 99.95% of the 1.3 million PubChem formulas is correctly found, while ca. 30% less formulas per mass are given compared to previously published rules. For the ca. 100 ‰000 plant metabolomics based formulas, 100% fit the improved rules. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

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