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Wageningen, Netherlands

Meneely J.P.,Queens University of Belfast | Ricci F.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | van Egmond H.P.,RIKILT Institute of Food Safety | Elliott C.T.,Queens University of Belfast
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

This article describes the trends in analytical techniques for the determination of trichothecene mycotoxins, namely deoxynivalenol, and T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereals and cereal products with particular emphasis on screening and rapid approaches. The driving force behind the changing methodologies is mainly attributed to legislative demands. However, for commercial and governmental testing laboratories, the need to use validated official methods is ever increasing to ensure quality assurance of results. Much research has been undertaken to improve screening assays, highlighted by the number of new methods using a variety of formats and platforms, including optical and electrochemical biosensors. Significant advances in the traditional reference methods have also been demonstrated in addition to the emergence of a variety of commercial immunoaffinity and solid-phase extraction columns for clean up. The use of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for mycotoxin detection is ever increasing, allowing simultaneous determination of many toxins in various sample matrices. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Hollman P.C.H.,Wageningen University | Hollman P.C.H.,RIKILT Institute of Food Safety | Geelen A.,Wageningen University | Kromhout D.,Wageningen University
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

Flavonols are strong antioxidants in plant foods and tea is a major dietary source. There is evidence from prospective cohort studies that tea and flavonols are inversely related to stroke incidence. We conducted a metaanalysis of prospective cohort studies to assess quantitatively the strength of the association between flavonol intake and stroke incidence. Prospective cohort studies with data from individuals free of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) or stroke at baseline were included in the metaanalysis. Persons were followed for between 6 and 28 y. Data from 6 cohorts involving 111,067 persons with at least 2155 nonfatal and fatal cases were pooled. A random effects model was used. In all studies included, adjustments were made for major CVD risk factors except for 2 that did not adjust for alcohol and energy intake. A high intake of flavonols compared with a low intake was inversely associated with nonfatal and fatal stroke with a pooled relative risk of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.98). Visual inspection of Begg's funnel plot and Egger's test (P = 0.01) indicated potential publication bias. We conclude that flavonols may reduce stroke risk. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition.

Lommen A.,RIKILT Institute of Food Safety
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

This paper gives a step-by-step account of how to install, set up, and run MetAlign software, which can be downloaded freely ( http://www.metalign.wur.nl/ UK/Download+and+publications ). The software is used for accurate mass and nominal mass data coming from different kinds of GC-MS and LC-MS platforms. The algorithms are beyond the scope of this paper and were published separately. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Sandeep P.M.,Kannur University | Bovee T.F.H.,RIKILT Institute of Food Safety | Sreejith K.,Kannur University
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders | Year: 2015

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major hyperandrogenic disorder. Many drugs prescribed specifically to treat PCOS have side effects; however, previous studies suggest that natural therapeutics including botanicals may be less invasive and equally effective for the management of PCOS. Methods: In the present study, plants were screened for antiandrogenic activity using the RIKILT yeast Androgen bioAssay (RAA). Selected positive plants were subsequently tested for their efficacy against PCOS induced by estradiol valerate (EV) in rat models. Results: RAA revealed the antiandrogenic property of Nardostachys jatamansi DC (NJ), Tribulus terrestris L. (TT), and Embelia tsjeriam-cottam DC (EJ), whereas Whithania somnifera Dunal (WS), Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (SR), and Helicteres isora L. (HI) exhibited androgenic properties. EJ also exhibited mild androgenic activity and therefore was excluded from further study. EV administration reduced the weight gain and disrupted cyclicity in all rats. NJ and TT extract treatment normalized estrous cyclicity and steroidal hormonal levels and regularized ovarian follicular growth. Conclusion: The in vitro antiandrogenic activity of plant extracts and their positive effects on different parameters of PCOS were proved in vivo. © Copyright 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2015.

Smits N.G.,RIKILT Institute of Food Safety
The Analyst | Year: 2013

Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is licensed for enhancing milk production in dairy cows in some countries, for instance the United States, but is banned in Europe. Serum biomarker profiling can be an adequate approach to discriminate between treated and untreated groups. In this study a multiplex screening tool of a small set of biomarkers for pinpointing recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) (ab)use was developed and evaluated: insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) and rbST-induced antibodies were selected as rbST dependent markers and combined in one parallel assay format. For this, the color-encoded microspheres were used in a suspension array, with a dedicated flow cytometer. Serum samples obtained from an animal experiment with rbST-treated and untreated dairy cows were measured with the developed triplex immunoassay and biomarker responses on rbST treatment were evaluated. This resulted in characteristic treatment-dependent responses for all three individual biomarkers. Combining these results with the statistical prediction model k-nearest neighbours (kNN), resulted in good discrimination of treated and untreated animals: an overall sensitivity (true positive rate) of 89.1% and an overall specificity (true negative rate) of 97.7% were reached. Therefore, this is the first multiplex method which can be applied with high confidence for screening of unknown herds of cattle pinpointing at rbST (ab)use.

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