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Wageningen, Netherlands

van Asselt E.,RIKILT | Osinga S.,Wageningen University | Bremmers H.,Wageningen University
British Food Journal | Year: 2016

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to simulate compliance behaviour of entrepreneurs in the Netherlands based on the Table of Eleven: 11 factors determining compliance (based on economic, cognitive, social and institutional factors). Design/methodology/approach – An Agent-Based Model (ABM) was developed that could incorporate both individual and group behaviour and allowed to evaluate the effect of various intervention strategies. For this purpose, a case study on the compliance of pig farmers with antibiotics legislation in the Netherlands was used. Findings – The effect of social factors (acceptance of legislation and social influence) on compliance levels was tested as well as the number of inspectors. This showed that the model can help to choose the most optimal intervention strategy depending on the input parameters. Research limitations/implications – Further expansion of the model may be necessary, e.g. including economic factors, in order to reflect real-life situations more closely. Practical implications – The model can be used by inspection services to effectively implement their control programme. Originality/value – The developed ABM is a first attempt to simulate compliance behaviour and as such contributes to the current limited knowledge on effective intervention strategies. © 2016, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Berendsen B.J.A.,RIKILT | Wegh R.S.,RIKILT | Meijer T.,RIKILT | Nielen M.W.F.,RIKILT | Nielen M.W.F.,Wageningen University
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2015

Selectivity of the confirmation of identity in liquid chromatography (tandem) mass spectrometry using Q-Orbitrap instrumentation was assessed using different acquisition modes based on a representative experimental data set constructed from 108 samples, including six different matrix extracts and containing over 100 analytes each. Single stage full scan, all ion fragmentation, and product ion scanning were applied. By generating reconstructed ion chromatograms using unit mass window in targeted MS2, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), regularly applied using triple-quadrupole instruments, was mimicked. This facilitated the comparison of single stage full scan, all ion fragmentation, (mimicked) SRM, and product ion scanning applying a mass window down to 1 ppm. Single factor Analysis of Variance was carried out on the variance (s2) of the mass error to determine which factors and interactions are significant parameters with respect to selectivity. We conclude that selectivity is related to the target compound (mainly the mass defect), the matrix, sample clean-up, concentration, and mass resolution. Selectivity of the different instrumental configurations was quantified by counting the number of interfering peaks observed in the chromatograms. We conclude that precursor ion selection significantly contributes to selectivity: monitoring of a single product ion at high mass accuracy with a 1 Da precursor ion window proved to be equally selective or better to monitoring two transition products in mimicked SRM. In contrast, monitoring a single fragment in all ion fragmentation mode results in significantly lower selectivity versus mimicked SRM. After a thorough inter-laboratory evaluation study, the results of this study can be used for a critical reassessment of the current identification points system and contribute to the next generation of evidence-based and robust performance criteria in residue analysis and sports doping. © 2014 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Source


Holst-Jensen A.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute | Spilsberg B.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute | Arulandhu A.J.,RIKILT | Kok E.,RIKILT | And 2 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2016

The emergence of high-throughput, massive or next-generation sequencing technologies has created a completely new foundation for molecular analyses. Various selective enrichment processes are commonly applied to facilitate detection of predefined (known) targets. Such approaches, however, inevitably introduce a bias and are prone to miss unknown targets. Here we review the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies and the preparation of fit-for-purpose whole genome shotgun sequencing libraries for the detection and characterization of genetically modified and derived products. The potential impact of these new sequencing technologies for the characterization, breeding selection, risk assessment, and traceability of genetically modified organisms and genetically modified products is yet to be fully acknowledged. The published literature is reviewed, and the prospects for future developments and use of the new sequencing technologies for these purposes are discussed. © 2016 The Author(s) Source


Patent
Rikilt, Academisch Ziekenhuis Maastricht and Maastricht University | Date: 2013-09-16

The invention is in the field of molecular diagnostics. More in particular it provides marker genes for determining the immunotoxicity of compounds. A method according to the invention employs samples obtained from a cell exposed to a potentially immunotoxic compound and determines expression levels of a number of marker genes in order to distinguish between immunotoxic compounds and non-immunotoxic compounds. More in particular, the invention relates to an in vitro method for determining whether a compound is immunotoxic wherein the expression level of at least one marker gene is determined in a sample obtained from a nucleated cell exposed to the compound, wherein the at least one marker gene is selected from the group consisting of ABCA1, CHAC1, CRIM1 and HMGCS1, and wherein it is concluded that the compound is immunotoxic if the expression level of said at least one marker gene is below or above a predetermined reference value.


van der Ploeg M.J.C.,Wageningen University | Handy R.D.,University of Plymouth | Waalewijn-Kool P.L.,VU University Amsterdam | van den Berg J.H.J.,Wageningen University | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2014

The impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNP; at 0mg Ag/kg, 1.5mg Ag/kg, 15.4mg Ag/kg, and 154mg Ag/kg soil) and silver nitrate (AgNO3; 15.4mg Ag/kg soil) on earthworms, Lumbricus rubellus, was assessed. A 4-wk exposure to the highest AgNP treatment reduced growth and reproduction compared with the control. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) exposure also impaired reproduction, but not as much as the highest AgNP treatment. Long-term exposure to the highest AgNP treatment caused complete juvenile mortality. All AgNP treatments induced tissue pathology. Population modeling demonstrated reduced population growth rates for the AgNP and AgNO3 treatments, and no population growth at the highest AgNP treatment because of juvenile mortality. Analysis of AgNP treated soil samples revealed that single AgNP and AgNP clusters were present in the soil, and that the total Ag in soil porewater remained high throughout the long-term experiment. In addition, immune cells (coelomocytes) of earthworms showed sensitivity to both AgNP and AgNO3 in vitro. Overall, the present study indicates that AgNP exposure may affect earthworm populations and that the exposure may be prolonged because of the release of a dissolved Ag fraction to soil porewater. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:743-752. © 2013 SETAC. Source

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