RIKILT

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Shephard G.S.,PROMEC Unit | Berthiller F.,University of Vienna | Dorner J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Krska R.,University of Vienna | And 8 more authors.
World Mycotoxin Journal | Year: 2010

This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2008 and mid-2009. It covers the major mycotoxins: aflatoxins, alternaria toxins, cyclopiazonic acid, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes and zearalenone. Developments in mycotoxin analysis continue, with emphasis on novel immunological methods and further description of LC-MS and LC-MS/MS, particularly as multimycotoxin applications for different ranges of mycotoxins. Although falling outside the main emphasis of the review, some aspects of natural occurrence have been mentioned, especially if linked to novel method developments. © 2010 Wageningen Academic Publishers.


Patent
Rikilt, Academisch Ziekenhuis Maastricht and Maastricht University | Date: 2013-09-16

The invention is in the field of molecular diagnostics. More in particular it provides marker genes for determining the immunotoxicity of compounds. A method according to the invention employs samples obtained from a cell exposed to a potentially immunotoxic compound and determines expression levels of a number of marker genes in order to distinguish between immunotoxic compounds and non-immunotoxic compounds. More in particular, the invention relates to an in vitro method for determining whether a compound is immunotoxic wherein the expression level of at least one marker gene is determined in a sample obtained from a nucleated cell exposed to the compound, wherein the at least one marker gene is selected from the group consisting of ABCA1, CHAC1, CRIM1 and HMGCS1, and wherein it is concluded that the compound is immunotoxic if the expression level of said at least one marker gene is below or above a predetermined reference value.


Patent
Maastricht University, Academisch Ziekenhuis Maastricht, Rijksinstituut Voor Volksgezondheid En Milieu and Rikilt | Date: 2013-01-30

The invention is in the field of predictive medicine. It provides means and methods for identifying compounds that cause or induce cholestasis. More in particular, the invention relates to an in vitro method of determining whether a compound has cholestatic properties by exposing an animal to a potentially cholestatic compound, extracting RNA from the animal, determining the level of expression of genes Pltp, Gsta2, Acot1, Cyp26a1, and Gck before and after exposure and concluding that the compound has a high probability of having cholestatic activity when the ratio of the level of expression of said genes after and before the exposure is above 2.0.


Patent
Rikilt, Maastricht University and Academisch Ziekenhuis Maastricht | Date: 2014-03-19

The invention is in the field of molecular diagnostics. More in particular it provides marker genes for determining the immunotoxicity of compounds. A method according to the invention employs samples obtained from a cell exposed to a potentially immunotoxic compound and determines expression levels of a number of marker genes in order to distinguish between immunotoxic compounds and non-immunotoxic compounds. More in particular, the invention relates to an in vitro method for determining whether a compound is immunotoxic wherein the expression level of at least one marker gene is determined in a sample obtained from a nucleated cell exposed to the compound, wherein the at least one marker gene is selected from the group consisting of ABCA1, CHAC1, CRIM1 and HMGCS1, and wherein it is concluded that the compound is immunotoxic if the expression level of said at least one marker gene is below or above a predetermined reference value.


Berendsen B.J.A.,RIKILT | Wegh R.S.,RIKILT | Meijer T.,RIKILT | Nielen M.W.F.,RIKILT | Nielen M.W.F.,Wageningen University
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2015

Selectivity of the confirmation of identity in liquid chromatography (tandem) mass spectrometry using Q-Orbitrap instrumentation was assessed using different acquisition modes based on a representative experimental data set constructed from 108 samples, including six different matrix extracts and containing over 100 analytes each. Single stage full scan, all ion fragmentation, and product ion scanning were applied. By generating reconstructed ion chromatograms using unit mass window in targeted MS2, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), regularly applied using triple-quadrupole instruments, was mimicked. This facilitated the comparison of single stage full scan, all ion fragmentation, (mimicked) SRM, and product ion scanning applying a mass window down to 1 ppm. Single factor Analysis of Variance was carried out on the variance (s2) of the mass error to determine which factors and interactions are significant parameters with respect to selectivity. We conclude that selectivity is related to the target compound (mainly the mass defect), the matrix, sample clean-up, concentration, and mass resolution. Selectivity of the different instrumental configurations was quantified by counting the number of interfering peaks observed in the chromatograms. We conclude that precursor ion selection significantly contributes to selectivity: monitoring of a single product ion at high mass accuracy with a 1 Da precursor ion window proved to be equally selective or better to monitoring two transition products in mimicked SRM. In contrast, monitoring a single fragment in all ion fragmentation mode results in significantly lower selectivity versus mimicked SRM. After a thorough inter-laboratory evaluation study, the results of this study can be used for a critical reassessment of the current identification points system and contribute to the next generation of evidence-based and robust performance criteria in residue analysis and sports doping. © 2014 American Society for Mass Spectrometry.


The invention is in the field of medical diagnostics and molecular biology. It provides markers that may be used in an in vitro method for determining whether a compound has cholestatic properties. More in particular, the invention relates to an in vitro method for determining whether a compound has cholestatic properties, comprising the step of exposing a liver cell to the compound, incubating the liver cell with the compound for an appropriate amount of time, determining the expression level of genes Bcl2l11, Parp 16, Mras, Myo1e, Nme6 ABCG5, ABCG8, SERPINE1, BAAT, and KLF15 in the liver cell, wherein an aberrant expression of more than 4 of these genes indicates that the compound has cholestatic properties.

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