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Arnhem, Netherlands

Boers K.E.,Leiden University | Bekedam D.J.,Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis | Kwee A.,University Utrecht | Van Der Salm P.C.M.,Meander Medical Center | And 17 more authors.
BMJ | Year: 2011

Objective: To compare the effect of induction of labour with a policy of expectant monitoring for intrauterine growth restriction near term. Design: Multicentre randomised equivalence trial (the Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term (DIGITAT)). Setting: Eight academic and 44 non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands between November 2004 and November 2008. Participants: Pregnant women who had a singleton pregnancy beyond 36+0 weeks' gestation with suspected intrauterine growth restriction. Interventions: Induction of labour or expectant monitoring. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was a composite measure of adverse neonatal outcome, defined as death before hospital discharge, five minute Apgar score of less than 7, umbilical artery pH of less than 7.05, or admission to the intensive care unit. Operative delivery (vaginal instrumental delivery or caesarean section) was a secondary outcome. Analysis was by intention to treat, with confidence intervals calculated for the differences in percentages or means. Results: 321 pregnant women were randomly allocated to induction and 329 to expectant monitoring. Induction group infants were delivered 10 days earlier (mean difference -9.9 days, 95% CI -11.3 to -8.6) and weighed 130 g less (mean difference -130 g, 95% CI -188 g to -71 g) than babies in the expectant monitoring group. A total of 17 (5.3%) infants in the induction group experienced the composite adverse neonatal outcome, compared with 20 (61%) in the expectant monitoring group (difference -0.8%, 95% CI -4.3% to 3.2%). Caesarean sections were performed on 45 (14.0%) mothers in the induction group and 45 (13.7%) in the expectant monitoring group (difference 0.3%, 95% CI -5.0% to 5.6%). Conclusions: In women with suspected intrauterine growth restriction at term, we found no important differences in adverse outcomes between induction of labour and expectant monitoring. Patients who are keen on non-intervention can safely choose expectant management with intensive maternal and fetal monitoring; however, it is rational to choose induction to prevent possible neonatal morbidity and stillbirth. Trial registration: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial number ISRCTN10363217. Source

Vijgen S.M.C.,Academic Medical Center Amsterdam | Koopmans C.M.,University of Groningen | Opmeer B.C.,Academic Medical Center Amsterdam | Groen H.,University of Groningen | And 23 more authors.
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2010

Objective To assess the economic consequences of labour induction compared with expectant monitoring in women with gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia at term. Design An economic analysis alongside the Hypertension and Pre-eclampsia Intervention Trial At Term (HYPITAT). Setting Obstetric departments of six university and 32 teaching and district hospitals in the Netherlands. Population Women diagnosed with gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia between 36+0 and 41+0weeks of gestation, randomly allocated to either induction of labour or expectant monitoring. Methods A trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a societal perspective during a 1-year time horizon. Main outcome measures One-year costs were estimated and health outcomes were expressed as the prevalence of poor maternal outcome defined as either maternal complications or progression to severe disease. Results The average costs of induction of labour (n=377) were €7077 versus €7908 for expectant monitoring (n=379), with an average difference of -€831 (95% CI -€1561 to -€144). This 11% difference predominantly originated from the antepartum period: per woman costs were €1259 for induction versus €2700 for expectant monitoring. During delivery, more costs were generated following induction (€2190) compared with expectant monitoring (€1210). No substantial differences were found in the postpartum, follow-up and for non-medical costs. Conclusion In women with gestational hypertension or mild pre-eclampsia at term, induction of labour is less costly than expectant monitoring because of differences in resource use in the antepartum period. As the trial already demonstrated that induction of labour results in less progression to severe disease without resulting in a higher caesarean section rate, both clinical and economic consequences are in favour of induction of labour in these women. Trial registration The trial has been registered in the clinical trial register as ISRCTN08132825. © RCOG 2010 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Source

Vijgen S.M.C.,Academic Medical Center Amsterdam | Boers K.E.,Leiden University | Opmeer B.C.,Academic Medical Center Amsterdam | Bijlenga D.,Academic Medical Center Amsterdam | And 22 more authors.
European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology | Year: 2013

Objective: Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for neonatal morbidity and mortality. The Dutch nationwide disproportionate intrauterine growth intervention trial at term (DIGITAT trial) showed that induction of labour and expectant monitoring were comparable with respect to composite adverse neonatal outcome and operative delivery. In this study we compare the costs of both strategies. Study design: A cost analysis was performed alongside the DIGITAT trial, which was a randomized controlled trial in which 650 women with a singleton pregnancy with suspected IUGR beyond 36 weeks of pregnancy were allocated to induction or expectant management. Resource utilization was documented by specific items in the case report forms. Unit costs for clinical resources were calculated from the financial reports of participating hospitals. For primary care costs Dutch standardized prices were used. All costs are presented in Euros converted to the year 2009. Results: Antepartum expectant monitoring generated more costs, mainly due to longer antepartum maternal stays in hospital. During delivery and the postpartum stage, induction generated more direct medical costs, due to longer stay in the labour room and longer duration of neonatal high care/medium care admissions. From a health care perspective, both strategies generated comparable costs: on average €7106 per patient for the induction group (N = 321) and €6995 for the expectant management group (N = 329) with a cost difference of €111 (95%CI: €-1296 to 1641). Conclusion: Induction of labour and expectant monitoring in IUGR at term have comparable outcomes immediately after birth in terms of obstetrical outcomes, maternal quality of life and costs. Costs are lower, however, in the expectant monitoring group before 38 weeks of gestation and costs are lower in the induction of labour group after 38 weeks of gestation. So if induction of labour is considered to pre-empt possible stillbirth in suspected IUGR, it is reasonable to delay until 38 weeks, with watchful monitoring. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Modern metal-on-metal hip resurfacing was introduced as a bone-preserving method of joint reconstruction for young and active patients; however, the large diameter of the bearing surfaces is of concern for potentially increased metal ion release. 71 patients (< 65 years old) were randomly assigned to receive either a resurfacing (R) hip arthroplasty (n = 38) or a conventional metal-on-metal (C) hip arthroplasty (n = 33). Functional outcomes were assessed preoperatively and at 6, 12, and 24 months. Cobalt and chromium blood levels were analyzed preoperatively and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. All functional outcome scores improved for both groups. At 12 and 24 months, the median UCLA activity score was 8 in the R patients and 7 in the C patients (p < 0.05). At 24 months, OHS was median 16 in C patients and 13 in R patients (p < 0.05). However, in spite of randomization, UCLA scores also appeared to be higher in R patients at baseline. Satisfaction was similar in both groups at 24 months. Cobalt concentrations were statistically significantly higher for R patients only at 3 and 6 months. Chromium levels remained significantly higher for R patients until 24 months. No pseudotumors were encountered in either group. One R patient was revised for early aseptic loosening and in 2 C patients a cup insert was exchanged for recurrent dislocation. R patients scored higher on UCLA, OHS, and satisfaction at some time points; however, as for the UCLA, preoperative levels were already in favor of R. The differences, although statistically significant, were of minor clinical importance. Chromium blood levels were statistically significantly higher for R patients at all follow-up measurements, whereas for cobalt this was only observed up to 6 months. The true value of resurfacing hip arthroplasty over conventional metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty will be determined by longer follow-up and a possible shift of balance between their respective (dis)advantages. Source

Melman S.,Maastricht University | Schoorel E.N.C.,Maastricht University | Dirksen C.,Maastricht University | Kwee A.,University Utrecht | And 22 more authors.
Implementation Science | Year: 2013

Background: Caesarean section (CS) rates are rising worldwide. In the Netherlands, the most significant rise is observed in healthy women with a singleton in vertex position between 37 and 42 weeks gestation, whereas it is doubtful whether an improved outcome for the mother or her child was obtained. It can be hypothesized that evidence-based guidelines on CS are not implemented sufficiently.Therefore, the present study has the following objectives: to develop quality indicators on the decision to perform a CS based on key recommendations from national and international guidelines; to use the quality indicators in order to gain insight into actual adherence of Dutch gynaecologists to guideline recommendations on the performance of a CS; to explore barriers and facilitators that have a direct effect on guideline application regarding CS; and to develop, execute, and evaluate a strategy in order to reduce the CS incidence for a similar neonatal outcome (based on the information gathered in the second and third objectives).Methods: An independent expert panel of Dutch gynaecologists and midwives will develop a set of quality indicators on the decision to perform a CS. These indicators will be used to measure current care in 20 hospitals with a population of 1,000 women who delivered by CS, and a random selection of 1,000 women who delivered vaginally in the same period. Furthermore, by interviewing healthcare professionals and patients, the barriers and facilitators that may influence the decision to perform a CS will be measured. Based on the results, a tailor-made implementation strategy will be developed and tested in a controlled before-and-after study in 12 hospitals (six intervention, six control hospitals) with regard to effectiveness, experiences, and costs.Discussion: This study will offer insight into the current CS care and into the hindering and facilitating factors influencing obstetrical policy on CS. Furthermore, it will allow definition of patient categories or situations in which a tailor-made implementation strategy will most likely be meaningful and cost effective, without negatively affecting the outcome for mother and child.Trial registration: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01261676. © 2013 Melman et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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