Rigaku Europe SE

Ettlingen, Germany

Rigaku Europe SE

Ettlingen, Germany
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Benediktovitch A.,Belarusian State University | Zhylik A.,Belarusian State University | Ulyanenkova T.,Rigaku Europe SE | Myronov M.,University of Warwick | Ulyanenkov A.,Rigaku Europe SE
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2015

Strained germanium grown on silicon with nonstandard surface orientations like (011) or (111) is a promising material for various semiconductor applications, for example complementary metal-oxide semiconductor transistors. However, because of the large mismatch between the lattice constants of silicon and germanium, the growth of such systems is challenged by nucleation and propagation of threading and misfit dislocations that degrade the electrical properties. To analyze the dislocation microstructure of Ge films on Si(011) and Si(111), a set of reciprocal space maps and profiles measured in noncoplanar geometry was collected. To process the data, the approach proposed by Kaganer, Köhler, Schmidbauer, Opitz & Jenichen [Phys. Rev. B, (1997), 55, 1793-1810] has been generalized to an arbitrary surface orientation, arbitrary dislocation line direction and noncoplanar measurement scheme.


Ulyanenkova T.,Rigaku Europe SE | Myronov M.,University of Warwick | Ulyanenkov A.,Rigaku Europe SE
Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics | Year: 2015

Highly boron doped epitaxial silicon, with boron concentrations well above 1x1020 cm-3, is of great interest for applications in large variety of electronic and photonic devices where it is used as a low resistivity contact. The Bragg peak position of a homogeneous solid solution epitaxial film is directly related to the solid solution concentration, film strain and, consequently residual stress. The peak shape contains information about defects present in an epilayer. Here we report structural experiments performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure on a set of boron doped Si thin epilayers grown on a Si(001) substrate. We analyzed the BSi epilayers using high resolution X-ray rocking curve, reflectivity measurements and high resolution reciprocal space mapping (HR-RSM). The measurements were carried out by Rigaku SmartLab diffractometer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


PubMed | University of Warwick, Rigaku Europe SE and Belarusian State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied crystallography | Year: 2015

Strained germanium grown on silicon with nonstandard surface orientations like (011) or (111) is a promising material for various semiconductor applications, for example complementary metal-oxide semiconductor transistors. However, because of the large mismatch between the lattice constants of silicon and germanium, the growth of such systems is challenged by nucleation and propagation of threading and misfit dislocations that degrade the electrical properties. To analyze the dislocation microstructure of Ge films on Si(011) and Si(111), a set of reciprocal space maps and profiles measured in noncoplanar geometry was collected. To process the data, the approach proposed by Kaganer, Khler, Schmidbauer, Opitz & Jenichen [


Zhylik A.,Belarusian State University | Benediktovitch A.,Belarusian State University | Feranchuk I.,Belarusian State University | Inaba K.,Rigaku Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2013

A general theoretical approach to the description of epitaxial layers with essentially different cell parameters and in-plane relaxation anisotropy has been developed. A covariant description of relaxation in such structures has been introduced. An iteration method for evaluation of these parameters on the basis of the diffraction data set has been worked out together with error analysis and reliability checking. The validity of the presented theoretical approaches has been proved with a-ZnO on r-sapphire samples grown in the temperature range from 573 K up to 1073 K. A covariant description of relaxation anisotropy for these samples has been estimated with data measured for different directions of the diffraction plane relative to the sample surface. © 2013 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore - all rights reserved.


Benediktovitch A.,Belarusian State University | Ulyanenkova T.,Rigaku Europe SE | Ulyanenkov A.,Rigaku Europe SE
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2014

A noncoplanar measurement geometry, achieved by using a diffractometer equipped with a detector arm possessing two degrees of freedom, is a promising technique for the analysis of residual stress gradients in polycrystalline objects and for anisotropic microstructure investigations. The instrumental function for a parallel beam and a set of two orthogonal receiving Soller slits is considered in detail, and the explicit analytical expressions in terms of a convolution of functions are derived. A comparison of the calculated results with the measured profiles from a NIST SRM 660b LaB6 powder standard sample shows a good alphaeement. © 2014 International Union of Crystallography.


Benediktovitch A.,Belarusian State University | Ulyanenkova T.,Rigaku Europe SE | Keckes J.,Materials Center Leoben Forschung | Ulyanenkov A.,Rigaku Europe SE
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2014

A methodology is presented to characterize residual stress gradients using the sin2ψ technique at constant penetration depths without the use of sample χ tilting. The experiments were performed using a laboratory five-axis X-ray diffractometer equipped with an in-plane arm by scanning several reflections in order to enlarge the penetration depth range. The proposed approach, demonstrated on a blasted 11.5 μm-thick TiN coating on a WC-Co substrate, opens the possibility to perform a complex stress gradient characterization in laboratory conditions where the sample χ tilting can deteriorate the sample properties or experimental conditions, like during in situ high-temperature studies. © 2014 International Union of Crystallography.


Mikhalychev A.,Belarusian State University | Mikhalychev A.,B. I. Stepanov Institute of Physics | Benediktovitch A.,Belarusian State University | Ulyanenkova T.,Rigaku Europe SE | Ulyanenkov A.,Atomicus GmbH
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2015

Modeling of the X-ray diffractometer instrumental function for a given optics configuration is important both for planning experiments and for the analysis of measured data. A fast and universal method for instrumental function simulation, suitable for fully automated computer realization and describing both coplanar and noncoplanar measurement geometries for any combination of X-ray optical elements, is proposed. The method can be identified as semi-analytical backward ray tracing and is based on the calculation of a detected signal as an integral of X-ray intensities for all the rays reaching the detector. The high speed of calculation is provided by the expressions for analytical integration over the spatial coordinates that describe the detection point. Consideration of the three-dimensional propagation of rays without restriction to the diffraction plane provides the applicability of the method for noncoplanar geometry and the accuracy for characterization of the signal from a two-dimensional detector. The correctness of the simulation algorithm is checked in the following two ways: by verifying the consistency of the calculated data with the patterns expected for certain simple limiting cases and by comparing measured reciprocal-space maps with the corresponding maps simulated by the proposed method for the same diffractometer configurations. Both kinds of tests demonstrate the agreement of the simulated instrumental function shape with the measured data.


Benediktovitch A.,Belarusian State University | Ulyanenkova T.,Rigaku Europe SE | Keckes J.,University of Leoben | Ulyanenkov A.,Rigaku Europe SE
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

X-ray residual stress analysis is a widespread nondestructive technique to investigate the residual stress and residual stress gradient in thin films and protective coatings. In the present con- tribution we introduce a new method based on the noncomplanar measurement geometry that allow to span large area of sin2ψ and penetration depth values without sample inclination. The refraction correction and absorption is considered in details for the noncomplanar measurements. The proposed technique is applied to determine stress gradients of blasted hard TiN coatings. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Patent
Rigaku Europe Se | Date: 2015-11-04

The present invention relates to a method for determining a residual stress gradient in a sample using X-ray diffraction, wherein the sample is supported on a sample holder defining a sample plane, the method comprising the steps of- irradiating a beam from an X-ray source onto the sample and detecting a beam diffracted by the sample with an X-ray detector having two degrees of freedom, wherein the directions of the incident beam and/or the diffracted beam are varied in relation to the sample and the position of the X-ray detector is varied in two degrees of freedom, and- determining the values sin^(2) and , which are representative for the residual stress gradient in the sample, as a function of the X-ray source and x-ray detector positions taking into account the two degrees of freedom of the detector, wherein is the polar angle, is the penetration depth of the beam into the sample, and is the mass attenuation coefficient of the sample. In order to improve this method, it is suggested that the variation of the directions of the incident beam and/or the diffracted beam comprises a rotation of the diffracted beam by an angle 2 within a plane that is inclined against the sample plane, designated in-plane arm rotation.


PubMed | Rigaku Europe SE
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied crystallography | Year: 2013

The technique of reciprocal space mapping using X-rays is a recognized tool for the nondestructive characterization of epitaxial films. X-ray scattering from epitaxial Si

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