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The Woodlands, TX, United States

Murray M.S.,Rigaku Americas Corporation | Milliner D.S.,Mayo Clinic Hyperoxaluria Center
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2012

Mutations in the gene encoding for 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase (HOGA) are associated with an excessive production of oxalate in Primary Hyperoxaluria type 3 (PH3). This enzyme is the final step of the hydroxyproline degradation pathway within the mitochondria and catalyzes the cleavage of 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate (HOG) to pyruvate and glyoxylate. No analyses have been performed to assess the consequences of the mutations identified, particularly for those variants that produce either full-length or nearly full-length proteins. In this study, the expression, stability, and activity of nine PH3 human HOGA variants were examined. Using recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli as well as transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, it was found that all nine PH3 variants are quite unstable, have a tendency to aggregate, and retain no measurable activity. A buildup of HOG was confirmed in the urine, sera and liver samples from PH3 patients. To determine how HOG is cleaved in the absence of HOGA activity, the ability of N-acetylneuraminate aldolase (NAL) to cleave HOG was evaluated. NAL showed minimal activity towards HOG. Whether the expected buildup of HOG in mitochondria could inhibit glyoxylate reductase (GR), the enzyme mutated in PH2, was also evaluated. GR was inhibited by HOG but not by 2-hydroxyglutarate or 2-oxoglutarate. Thus, one hypothetical component of the molecular basis for the excessive oxalate production in PH3 appears to be the inhibition of GR by HOG, resulting in a phenotype similar to PH2. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Chen G.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Mahmud I.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Dawe L.N.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Daniels L.M.,Rigaku Americas Corporation | Zhao Y.,Memorial University of Newfoundland
Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2011

Alkynyl-substituted phenyldithiafulvenes have been found to act as versatile building blocks for the construction of π-conjugated molecular rods, shape-persistent macrocycles (SPMs), and conducting polymers. Through Cu(I)-catalyzed alkynyl homocoupling, a series of linear-shaped π-extended tetrathiafulvalene analogues (exTTFs) carrying conjugated oligoynes (ranging from diyne to hexayne) as the central π-bridge were readily prepared. The solid-state properties and reactivities of diyne- and tetrayne-centered exTTFs were characterized by X-ray crystallography and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), while the electronic properties of the oligoyne-exTTFs were elucidated by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Cyclic voltammetric analysis showed that the terminal phenyldithiafulvene groups of the oligyne-exTTFs could undergo oxidative coupling to form tetrathiafulvalene vinylogue (TTFV)-linked polymer wires. Through a different synthetic route involving oxidative dimerization and Pd/Cu-catalyzed alkynyl homocoupling, the acetylenic phenyldithiafulvene precursors led to shape-persistent macrocycles where the formation of trimeric macrocycles was particularly favored due to the small ring strain incurred. Finally, spectroelectrochemical studies on these oligoyne and TTF hybrid materials disclosed electrochromic and molecular redox-controlled switching properties applicable to molecular electronic and optoelectronic devices. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Rajasekaran D.,Yale University | Fan C.,Yale University | Meng W.,Yale University | Pflugrath J.W.,Rigaku Americas Corporation | Lolis E.J.,Yale University
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

The mammalian chemokine family is segregated into four families - CC, CXC, CX3C, and XC-based on the arrangement of cysteines and the corresponding disulfides. Sequencing of the Danio rerio (zebrafish) genome has identified more than double the amount of human chemokines with the absence of the CX3C family and the presence of a new family, CX. The only other family with a single cysteine in the N-terminal region is the XC family. Human lymphotactin (XCL1) has two interconverting structures due to dynamic changes that occur in the protein. Similar to an experiment with XCL1 that identified the two structural forms, we probed for multiple forms of zCXL1 using heparin affinity. The results suggest only a single form of CXL1 is present. We used sulfur-SAD phasing to determine the three-dimensional structure CXL1. Zebrafish CXL1 (zCXL1) has three disulfides that appear to be important for a stable structure. One disulfide is common to all chemokines except those that belong to the XC family, another is similar to a subset of CC chemokines containing three disulfides, but the third disulfide is unique to the CX family. We analyzed the electrostatic potential of the zCXL1 structure and identified the likely heparin-binding site for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). zCXL1 has a similar sequence identity with human CCL5 and CXCL12, but the structure is more related to CCL5. Our structural analysis supports the phylogenetic and genomic studies on the evolution of the CXL family. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Juvvadi P.R.,Duke University | Pemble C.W.,Duke University | Pemble C.W.,Rigaku Americas Corporation | Ma Y.,Shanxi Medical University | Steinbach W.J.,Duke University
FEBS Letters | Year: 2016

Calcineurin heterodimer, comprised of the catalytic (CnaA) and regulatory (CnaB) subunits, localizes at the hyphal tips and septa to direct growth, septation, and disease in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Here we discovered a novel motif (FMDVF) required for this critical CnaA septal localization, including residues Phe368, Asp370 and Phe372 overlapping the cyclosporine A-cyclophilin A-binding domain, CnaB-binding helix and the FK506-FKBP12-binding pocket. Mutations in adjacent residues Asn367, Trp374, and Ser375 confer FK506 resistance without impacting CnaA septal localization. Modeling A. fumigatus CnaA confirmed that the FMDVF motif forms a bridge between the two known substrate-binding motifs, PxIxIT and LxVP, and concurrent mutations (F368A D370A; F368A F372A) in the FMDVF motif disrupt CnaA-substrate interaction at the septum. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Source

Pflugrath J.W.,Rigaku Americas Corporation
Acta Crystallographica Section F:Structural Biology Communications | Year: 2015

Cryocrystallography is an indispensable technique that is routinely used for single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collection at temperatures near 100 K, where radiation damage is mitigated. Modern procedures and tools to cryoprotect and rapidly cool macromolecular crystals with a significant solvent fraction to below the glass-transition phase of water are reviewed. Reagents and methods to help prevent the stresses that damage crystals when flash-cooling are described. A method of using isopentane to assess whether cryogenic temperatures have been preserved when dismounting screened crystals is also presented. © 2015 International Union of Crystallography. Source

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