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Hingonia K.,Banaras Hindu University | Singh R.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Meena R.N.,Banaras Hindu University | Vermal H.P.,ricultural University | Meena R.P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2016

field study was carried out at the Banaras Hindu University's Agricultural Research Farm during the rabi (dry) seasons of 2013-14 in a Randomized block design (RBD) with three replications, consisting of 9 treatments, namely, T1-(6 t/ha mulching + No irrigation), T2 (6 t/ha mulching + One irrigation at 35 DAS), T3-(6 t/ha mulching + Two irrigation at 35 DAS & 85 DAS), T4 (4 t/ha mulching + No irrigation), T5 (4 t/ha mulching + One irrigation at 35 DAS), T6 (4 t/ha mulching + Two irrigation at 35 DAS & 85 DAS), T7 (No mulching + No irrigation), T8 (No mulching + One irrigation at 35 DAS) and T9 (No mulching + Two irrigation at 35 DAS & 85 DAS). The research results indicated that amongst different mulching and irrigation levels, the treatment T3 recorded expressively higher grain yield, straw yield, quality parameters and nutrient uptake. This in turn resulted in significant improvement in grain, straw yield, biological yield and nutrient uptake in T3 over remaining mulching and irrigation levels.

Jhankare A.,Horticultural Biotechnology Laboratory | Tripathi M.K.,Horticultural Biotechnology Laboratory | Tiwari S.,ricultural University
Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Disease tolerant/resistant Withania (Withania somnifera (L.) cv JA-20 and MWS-100) cell lines were selected against leaf blight disease caused by Alternaria alternata. For this purpose callus and' cell suspension cultures derived from mature embryos and hypocotyl explants were exposed to purified toxic culture filtrate produced by the fungus supplemented with MS culture medium. Two selection methods .were used: a continuous method in which four cycles of selection were performed on toxic medium whereas during discontinuous method, a pause was given after the second and third cycle of selection using non-toxic medium. Approximately 310 calli of JA-20 and 340 of MWS-100 obtained from mature embryo and hypocotyl explants cultures and 675 of JA-20 and 725 of MWS100 cell clumps/embryoids acquired from cell suspension cultures were exposed to media with effective concentration (10.0 ml/1) of Phytotoxin for selection. The discontinuous method proved to be superior as it allowed the calli to regain their regeneration capability. Continuous exposure with toxic culture filtrate resulted up to 77% mortality. In vivo pathogenesity test of regenerated plants from the surviving tolerant/resistant cell lines revealed non-sensitive against pathogen toxin. A total 2 lines of JA-20 and one of MWS-100 were documented resistant/tolerant amongst an array of putative resistant/tolerant lines during S1 generation. © 2011 Society for Biology and Biotechnology.

Sheikh W.,ricultural University | Acharya S.,ricultural University | Patel J.B.,ricultural University | Kalaskar S.R.,ricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2015

The cytoplasmic-genetic male-sterility (CGMS) system is a potent approach to develop hybrids in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. The CGMS system comprises of three lines, viz., A (sterile), B (maintainer) and R (restorer) lines. Practically identification of CGMS lines and their putative restorers in the early stage of growth is desired using molecular markers. The RAPD and SSR analyses of genomic DNA were performed using 80 RAPD and 123 SSR primers in 10 distinct genotypes of each of A and R lines of pigeonpea. Of 80 RAPD primers used, 76 of them produced blatant banding pattern among A and R lines. Out of these, 72 were polymorphic and 4 were monomorphic. A total of 702 bands were amplified, of which 544 were polymorphic. The number of amplified loci varied from 2 to 22, while the size of amplified bands ranged from 100 to 2850 bp. Out of 123 SSR primers used, 94 showed amplifications and only 67 primers evinced polymorphism in A and R lines, indicating 54.47 per cent polymorphism. Further, 183 alleles were amplified on the said 94 SSR loci with an average number of 1.98 alleles per locus and the size of the amplified fragments varied from 100 to 2950 bp. The Jaccard and Nei's similarity coefficient ranged from 0.58 to 0.79 for RAPD and 0.24 to 0.93 for SSR. A dendrogram constructed based on the UPGMA clustering method using RAPD primers revealed two major clusters, while SSR markers showed four major clusters. Of 80 RAPD marker, two marker, viz., OPC1 and OPA 11, exhibited informative bands specific to CMS and restorer lines, respectively. Thus RAPD seemed better option for easy screening of A and R lines in Pigeonpea.

Jain S.K.,ricultural University | Patel P.R.,ricultural University | Patel P.R.,Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University
Legume Research | Year: 2012

Seed yield performances and stability indices were calculated for thirteen genotypes of cluster bean evaluated for two years (2008-09 and 2009-10) at two locations in North Gujarat to identify phenotypically stable genotypes for seed yield and its component traits. Pooled analysis of variance for stability in the performance of different genotypes of guar were highly significant for all the characters viz., days to 50% flowering, days to 75% maturity, pods per plant, plant height, and seed yield except pod length and seeds per pod. The G X E interaction for all the characters were significant and the significant mean square due to environment (linear) indicated the existence of the real genotypic differences in the characters for regression over the environmental mean. The genotypes namely GAUG-0309, GAUG-0416, GAUG-0513 and GAUG-0522 were found stable for eariiness and they can be directly used for breeding for earliness. For improvement of seed yield, the genotypes viz., GAUG-0309 and GAUG-0511 were the most stable under rainfed situation.

Agrawal K.K.,ricultural University | Singh P.K.,Agromet Service Cell
Mausam | Year: 2012

The daily rainfall data of past 31 years (1978-2008) of Agro meteorological Observatory, Department of Physics & Agriculture Engineering, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh) has been analyzed for establishing the long term average of weekly, monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall and its variability. The weekly probability of rainfall was estimated using Markov Chain probability model for receiving ≥ 10 and 30 mm rainfall per week. The mean annual rainfall observed as 1309 mm and its variability was 27.1 per cent. The highest annual and kharif season rainfall 2083 and 2052 mm respectively were recorded in 1994. On the other hand the lowest annual and kharif rainfall were 620 mm and 471 mm respectively in 1979. The study revealed that the recent decade rainfall has increased during last 31 years. The seasonal average kharif, post monsoon, winter and summer seasons recorded 1197.3 mm, 32.1 mm, 49.8 mm and 29.8 mm of rainfall. About 91.5 per cent of total annual rainfall was received in kharif, 2.5 per cent in post monsoon, 3.8 per cent in winter monsoon and 2.3 per cent in summer. During the period under study 16 per cent of the years recorded excess, 23 per cent deficit and 61 per cent normal rainfall. The July month is regarded as suitable for transplanting of rice crop in Jabalpur region. The highest contribution has been observed in August (33 per cent). Standard week from 25 to 37 received rainfall more than 30 mm indicating the crop growing period from June 2nd week to September last week.

Ahmad W.,ricultural University | Khan F.,ricultural University | Khan F.,University of Peshawar | Naeem M.,ricultural University | Naeem M.,Agriculture Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

Arable land in Pakistan is shrinking due to construction of houses and development of infrastructure, there has been a trend of shifting agriculture towards steep lands in order to feed the increasing population. Soil erosion on these lands is one of the most significant ecological restrictions to sustainable agriculture. A study was conducted during 2006-2008 to test the agronomic management practices for mitigating the adverse effects of soil erosion on arable soil. The experiment was designed in RCB with split plot arrangements. Cropping patterns, i e maize (Zea mays L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (C1), maize-lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.)-maize (C2) and maizewheat+ lentil intercrop-maize (C3) were kept in main plots while fertilizer treatments; the control (T1), 50% NP also called farmers' practice (T2), 100% NPK or the recommended dose (T3) and 20 tonnes/ha farmyard manure integrated with 50% mineral N and 100% P and K (T4) were kept in sub-plots. Fertilizer treatments significantly improved soil physical properties in both depths. T4 showed the maximum improvement (13, 12, 22 and 31%) in bulk density, porosity, saturation and available water over the control and 3, 3, 8 and 7% over the T3 in surface soil. Cereal-legume rotation showed the maximum improvement while significant improvement in soil physical properties was noted with time, i e from kharif 2006 to rabi 2007. Highly significant negative correlation was observed between bulk density and saturation percentage (r2=0.97) and bulk density and AWHC (r2=0.93). It was concluded that NPK fertilizer alone cannot restore the physical environment of eroded soil to its maximum limit, but this objective could, rather, be achieved through mixed application of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizers. For this purpose, being an unstable nutrient element, recommended dose of mineral N must be reduced by 50% to avoid its over-application. In addition to other benefits of legumes in rotation, its improvement of physical properties further assert their importance in farming on such eroded lands.

Mishra P.,ricultural University | Singh R.B.,ricultural University | Sharma H.L.,ricultural University
International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences | Year: 2013

This paper is concerned with the type of accelerated life testing using exponential and Weibull distributions for the accelerated life testing involving acceleration of failures with single purpose of the quantification of the life characteristics of product at normal conditions. The parameters involved in the distributions were estimated by method of moments and maximum likelihood to determine general equation for failure rate function and failure time distribution including the mean life of the system through these distributions. At the end, some hypothetical examples were given to highlight the results.

Gontia-Mishra I.,ricultural University | Tiwari S.,ricultural University
Food Technology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Plant seeds that have high phytate content are used as animal feed. Phytases, enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of phytate into inorganic phosphorus and myoinositol phosphate derivatives, have been intensively studied in recent years and gained immense attention because of their application in reducing phytate content in animal feed and food for human consumption, thus indirectly lowering environmental pollution caused by undigested phytate. This review is focused on summarising the current knowledge on recent developments of fungal and yeast phytases. Comparative account on diverse sources and physiological roles, molecular characteristics and regulation mechanisms of phytases are discussed. Phylogenetic relationship of phytases from different classes of fungi is studied in details. It is inferred on the basis of phylogeny that phytases from Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes differ in the amino acid sequences, therefore they fall in separate clade in the tree. The prospective biotechnological applications of microbial phytases such as animal feed additives, probiotics, pharmaceuticals, as well as in aquaculture, food industry, paper manufacturing, development of transgenic plants and animals with special reference to its use as biofertilizers are also emphasised in this review.

Patel B.A.,ricultural University | Patel I.S.,ricultural University | Patel P.S.,ricultural University | Patel J.K.,ricultural University
Pestology | Year: 2010

Field experiment comprising of eight insecticides was conducted at Agronomy Instructional Farm, C.P. College of Agriculture, S.D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar during Kharif 2009. Soil drenching of imidacloprid 40% + fipronil 40% - 80 WG @ 250 g per ha and seed treatment of quinalphos 25 EC@25 ml per kg seed were found safe and most effective treatments against whitegrub and termite in groundnut crop. It was followed by soil drenching of imidacloprid 40% + fipronil 40% - 80 WG @187 g per ha and chlorpyriphos 20 EC@ 2500 ml per ha. Although, seed treatment of quinalphos 25 EC@25 ml per kg seed was proved most profitable treatment (NICBR = 1:27.78).

Patel B.A.,ricultural University | Patel I.S.,ricultural University | Patel P.S.,ricultural University | Patel J.K.,ricultural University
Pestology | Year: 2010

Field survey for investigating damage intensity due to whitegrub and termite in groundnut crop revealed that maximum damage was noticed on first survey (19.8.2009) than second survey (12.9.2009). The mean incidence of whitegrub at Dantiwada, Palanpur and Deesa was reported to be 6.37, 4.38 and 3.11 per cent, respectively. On the contrary, termite damage was noticed maximum on second survey (12.9.2009). Dantiwada taluka had more termite damage (3.06%) than Deesa (2.33%) and Palanpur (2.15%) taluka. Overall result revealed that Dantiwada taluka had maximum damage of whitegrub and termite than other two taluka.

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