Richwood Pharmaceutical Co.

Seoul, South Korea

Richwood Pharmaceutical Co.

Seoul, South Korea
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Lee S.Y.,Sungkyunkwan University | Suh W.S.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kim H.K.,Sungkyunkwan University | Lee I.K.,Richwood Pharmaceutical Company Ltd | And 3 more authors.
Heterocycles | Year: 2015

Four new triterpene saponins (1-4), together with 13 known triterpenoids (5-17), were isolated from the MeOH extract of Ilex cornuta Lindley (Aquifoliaceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicities against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15) in vitro using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. © 2015 The Japan Institute of Heterocyclic Chemistry.


Park E.-H.,University of Ulsan | Kim Y.-J.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Yamabe N.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Park S.-H.,Richwood Pharmaceutical Co. | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2014

Background: Research has been conducted with regard to the development of methods for improving the pharmaceutical effect of ginseng by conversion of ginsenosides, which are the major active components of ginseng, via high temperature or high-pressure processing. Methods: The present study sought to investigate the anticancer effect of heat-processed American ginseng (HAG) in human gastric cancer AGS cells with a focus on assessing the role of apoptosis as an important mechanistic element in its anticancer actions. Results and Conclusion: HAG significantly reduced the cancer cell proliferation, and the contents of ginsenosides Rb1 and Re were markedly decreased, whereas the peaks of lessepolar ginsenosides [20(S,R)- Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5] were newly detected. Based on the activit-guided fractionation of HAG, ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 played a key role in inducing apoptosis in human gastric cancer AGS cells, and it was generated mainly from ginsenoside Rb1. Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, as well as regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that heat-processing serves as an increase in the antitumor activity of American ginseng in AGS cells, and ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3, the active component produced by heat-processing, induces the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, which contributes to the apoptotic cell death. © 2013, The Korean Society of Ginseng, Published by Elsevier. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Richwood Pharmaceutical Co., University of Ulsan and Korea Institute of Science and Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of ginseng research | Year: 2014

Research has been conducted with regard to the development of methods for improving the pharmaceutical effect of ginseng by conversion of ginsenosides, which are the major active components of ginseng, via high temperature or high-pressure processing.The present study sought to investigate the anticancer effect of heat-processed American ginseng (HAG) in human gastric cancer AGS cells with a focus on assessing the role of apoptosis as an important mechanistic element in its anticancer actions.HAG significantly reduced the cancer cell proliferation, and the contents of ginsenosides Rb1 and Re were markedly decreased, whereas the peaks of less-polar ginsenosides [20(S,R)-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5] were newly detected. Based on the activity-guided fractionation of HAG, ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 played a key role in inducing apoptosis in human gastric cancer AGS cells, and it was generated mainly from ginsenoside Rb1. Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, as well as regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that heat-processing serves as an increase in the antitumor activity of American ginseng in AGS cells, and ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3, the active component produced by heat-processing, induces the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, which contributes to the apoptotic cell death.


Choi P.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Park J.Y.,Gachon University | Kim T.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Park S.-H.,Richwood Pharmaceutical Co. | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2015

In this study, we demonstrated the efficient structural conversion of ginsenosides, which enhances the anticancer activity of ginseng by microwave irradiation. The microwave-irradiated product of ginseng (MG) had a higher content of ginsenosides, Rg3+Rg5+Rk1, particularly Rg5 and Rk1, and, thus, has an increased medicinal effect. To confirm the anticancer effect of MG, it was tested in 5 human cancer cell lines (cervical cancer HeLa, gastric cancer AGS, colon cancer HCT-116, lung cancer A549, and liver cancer HepG2 cells). Anti-proliferation results for 5 human cancer cell lines treated with ginseng extracts indicate that HeLa cells treated with MG showed the highest activity with an IC50 value of 130.1 μg/mL. MG also suppressed the growth of human cervical cancer cell xenografts in athymic nude mice as an in vivo model. This growth suppression by MG is associated with the induction of cell death and autophagy. Moreover, there were no toxic sign or decrease in renal and hepatic function in mice administered with MG. Therefore, heat processing by microwave irradiation is a useful method to enhance the anticancer effect of ginseng as it increases the content of ginsenosides, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Park J.Y.,Gachon University | Choi P.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Kim H.-K.,Richwood Pharmaceutical Co | Kang K.S.,Gachon University | Ham J.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2015

Background: Ginseng, which is widely used in functional foods and as an herbal medicine, has been reported to reduce the proliferation of prostate cancer cells by mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Methods: This study was designed to investigate the changes in ginsenoside content in ginseng after treatment with a microwave-irradiation thermal process and to verify the anticancer effects of the extracts. To confirm the anticancer effect of microwave-irradiated processed ginseng (MG), it was tested in three human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, and PC-3 cells). Involvements of apoptosis and autophagy were assessed using Western blotting. Results: After microwave treatment, the content of ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd in the extracts decreased, whereas the content of ginsenosides 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 increased. Antiproliferation results for the human cancer cell lines treated with ginseng extracts indicate that PC-3 cells treated with MG showed the highest activity with an half maximal inhibitory concentration of 48 mg/mL. We also showed that MG suppresses the growth of human prostate cancer cell xenografts in athymic nude mice as an in vivo model. This growth suppression by MG is associated with the inductions of cell death and autophagy. Conclusion: Therefore, heat processing by microwave irradiation is a useful method to enhance the anticancer effect of ginseng by increasing the content of ginsenosides Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1. © 2015, The Korean Society of Ginseng, Published by Elsevier. All rights reserved.


Park J.Y.,Gachon University | Choi P.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Kim T.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Ko H.,Dankook University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Although cisplatin can dramatically improve the survival rate in cancer patients, its use is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Previous investigations showed that Panax ginseng contains components that exhibit protective activity against cisplatin-induced nephropathy. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of microwave-assisted processing on the protective effect of ginseng and identify ginsenosides that are active against cisplatin-induced kidney damage to evaluate the potential of using ginseng in the management of nephrotoxicity. The LLC-PK1 cell damage by cisplatin was significantly decreased by treatment with microwave-processed ginseng (MG) and ginsenosides Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1. Reduced expression of p53 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase proteins by cisplatin in LLC-PK1 cells was markedly ameliorated after Rg3 and Rg5/Rk1 treatment. Additionally, elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly reduced by ginsenosides Rg5, Rk1, and with even greater potency, Rg3. Moreover, MG and its fraction containing active ginsenosides showed protective effects against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in mice. We found that ginsenosides Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 generated during the heat treatment of ginseng ameliorate renal damage by regulating inflammation and apoptosis. Results of current experiments provide evidence of the renoprotective effects and therapeutic potential of MG and its active ginsenosides, both in vitro and in vivo. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Park J.Y.,Gachon University | Choi P.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Kim H.-K.,Richwood Pharmaceutical Co. | Kang K.S.,Gachon University | Ham J.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2015

Background: Ginseng, which is widely used in functional foods and as an herbal medicine, has been reported to reduce the proliferation of prostate cancer cells by mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Methods: This study was designed to investigate the changes in ginsenoside content in ginseng after treatment with a microwave-irradiation thermal process and to verify the anticancer effects of the extracts. To confirm the anticancer effect of microwave-irradiated processed ginseng (MG), it was tested in three human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, and PC-3 cells). Involvements of apoptosis and autophagy were assessed using Western blotting. Results: After microwave treatment, the content of ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd in the extracts decreased, whereas the content of ginsenosides 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 increased. Antiproliferation results for the human cancer cell lines treated with ginseng extracts indicate that PC-3 cells treated with MG showed the highest activity with an half maximal inhibitory concentration of 48μg/mL. We also showed that MG suppresses the growth of human prostate cancer cell xenografts in athymic nude mice as an invivo model. This growth suppression by MG is associated with the inductions of cell death and autophagy. Conclusion: Therefore, heat processing by microwave irradiation is a useful method to enhance the anticancer effect of ginseng by increasing the content of ginsenosides Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1. © 2015.


PubMed | Richwood Pharmaceutical Co., Gachon University and Korea Institute of Science and Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of ginseng research | Year: 2016

Ginseng, which is widely used in functional foods and as an herbal medicine, has been reported to reduce the proliferation of prostate cancer cells by mechanisms that are not yet fully understood.This study was designed to investigate the changes in ginsenoside content in ginseng after treatment with a microwave-irradiation thermal process and to verify the anticancer effects of the extracts. To confirm the anticancer effect of microwave-irradiated processed ginseng (MG), it was tested in three human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, and PC-3 cells). Involvements of apoptosis and autophagy were assessed using Western blotting.After microwave treatment, the content of ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd in the extracts decreased, whereas the content of ginsenosides 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 increased. Antiproliferation results for the human cancer cell lines treated with ginseng extracts indicate that PC-3 cells treated with MG showed the highest activity with an half maximal inhibitory concentration of 48g/mL. We also showed that MG suppresses the growth of human prostate cancer cell xenografts in athymic nude mice as an invivo model. This growth suppression by MG is associated with the inductions of cell death and autophagy.Therefore, heat processing by microwave irradiation is a useful method to enhance the anticancer effect of ginseng by increasing the content of ginsenosides Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1.


PubMed | Dankook University, Gachon University, Richwood Pharmaceutical Company and Korea Institute of Science and Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2015

Although cisplatin can dramatically improve the survival rate in cancer patients, its use is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Previous investigations showed that Panax ginseng contains components that exhibit protective activity against cisplatin-induced nephropathy. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of microwave-assisted processing on the protective effect of ginseng and identify ginsenosides that are active against cisplatin-induced kidney damage to evaluate the potential of using ginseng in the management of nephrotoxicity. The LLC-PK1 cell damage by cisplatin was significantly decreased by treatment with microwave-processed ginseng (MG) and ginsenosides Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1. Reduced expression of p53 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase proteins by cisplatin in LLC-PK1 cells was markedly ameliorated after Rg3 and Rg5/Rk1 treatment. Additionally, elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly reduced by ginsenosides Rg5, Rk1, and with even greater potency, Rg3. Moreover, MG and its fraction containing active ginsenosides showed protective effects against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in mice. We found that ginsenosides Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 generated during the heat treatment of ginseng ameliorate renal damage by regulating inflammation and apoptosis. Results of current experiments provide evidence of the renoprotective effects and therapeutic potential of MG and its active ginsenosides, both in vitro and in vivo.

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