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Park J.Y.,Gachon University | Choi P.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Kim H.-K.,Richwood Pharmaceutical Co. | Kang K.S.,Gachon University | Ham J.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2015

Background: Ginseng, which is widely used in functional foods and as an herbal medicine, has been reported to reduce the proliferation of prostate cancer cells by mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Methods: This study was designed to investigate the changes in ginsenoside content in ginseng after treatment with a microwave-irradiation thermal process and to verify the anticancer effects of the extracts. To confirm the anticancer effect of microwave-irradiated processed ginseng (MG), it was tested in three human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, and PC-3 cells). Involvements of apoptosis and autophagy were assessed using Western blotting. Results: After microwave treatment, the content of ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd in the extracts decreased, whereas the content of ginsenosides 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 increased. Antiproliferation results for the human cancer cell lines treated with ginseng extracts indicate that PC-3 cells treated with MG showed the highest activity with an half maximal inhibitory concentration of 48 mg/mL. We also showed that MG suppresses the growth of human prostate cancer cell xenografts in athymic nude mice as an in vivo model. This growth suppression by MG is associated with the inductions of cell death and autophagy. Conclusion: Therefore, heat processing by microwave irradiation is a useful method to enhance the anticancer effect of ginseng by increasing the content of ginsenosides Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1. © 2015, The Korean Society of Ginseng, Published by Elsevier. All rights reserved.


Lee S.Y.,Sungkyunkwan University | Suh W.S.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kim H.K.,Sungkyunkwan University | Lee I.K.,Richwood Pharmaceutical Co. | And 3 more authors.
Heterocycles | Year: 2015

Four new triterpene saponins (1-4), together with 13 known triterpenoids (5-17), were isolated from the MeOH extract of Ilex cornuta Lindley (Aquifoliaceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicities against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15) in vitro using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. © 2015 The Japan Institute of Heterocyclic Chemistry.


Park J.Y.,Gachon University | Choi P.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Kim T.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Ko H.,Dankook University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Although cisplatin can dramatically improve the survival rate in cancer patients, its use is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Previous investigations showed that Panax ginseng contains components that exhibit protective activity against cisplatin-induced nephropathy. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of microwave-assisted processing on the protective effect of ginseng and identify ginsenosides that are active against cisplatin-induced kidney damage to evaluate the potential of using ginseng in the management of nephrotoxicity. The LLC-PK1 cell damage by cisplatin was significantly decreased by treatment with microwave-processed ginseng (MG) and ginsenosides Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1. Reduced expression of p53 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase proteins by cisplatin in LLC-PK1 cells was markedly ameliorated after Rg3 and Rg5/Rk1 treatment. Additionally, elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly reduced by ginsenosides Rg5, Rk1, and with even greater potency, Rg3. Moreover, MG and its fraction containing active ginsenosides showed protective effects against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in mice. We found that ginsenosides Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 generated during the heat treatment of ginseng ameliorate renal damage by regulating inflammation and apoptosis. Results of current experiments provide evidence of the renoprotective effects and therapeutic potential of MG and its active ginsenosides, both in vitro and in vivo. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Trademark
Lehigh Technologies, Inc, Xanodyne, Integrity Pharmaceutical Corporation and Richwood Pharmaceutical Company | Date: 2000-01-11

urinary tract antiseptic and antispasmodic preparation.


Trademark
Richwood Pharmaceutical Company | Date: 1997-06-19

decongestant and cough suppressant.

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