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Lu Z.-H.,China Agricultural University | Zhang Y.,China Agricultural University | Li L.-T.,China Agricultural University | Curtis R.B.,Richardson Center for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection

Electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) has been regarded as a potential environmentally friendly broad spectrum microbial decontaminant. EOW with a pH of 3.0 and oxidation reduction potential of 1,079.0 mV were generated by the electrolysis of a dilute NaCl solution (20 mM) in an electrochemical cell. The effects of EOW, 1% NaClO solution, and alkaline electrolyzed water on controlling microbial growth, germination ratio, and enrichment of γ-aminobutyric acid in germinated brown rice (GBR) were evaluated in this study. Results show that EOW was the most effective at inhibiting microbial growth during germination. Rinsing the rice grains with EOW at 12-h intervals resulted in aerobic plate count reductions of 4.82 log CFU/g, while soaking resulted in bacterial count reductions of 5.38 log CFU/g after 72 h of germination. Moreover, EOW significantly enriched γ-aminobutyric acid content in GBR (P < 0.05); content was increased 1.6 times in grain rinsed with EOW and 1.8 times in grain soaked in EOW. The findings indicate that EOW is a feasible disinfectant for industrial GBR production. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection. Source

Onuh J.O.,University of Manitoba | Girgih A.T.,University of Manitoba | Aluko R.E.,University of Manitoba | Aluko R.E.,Richardson Center for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry

Chicken thigh and breast skin proteins were hydrolysed using alcalase or a combination of pepsin and pancreatin (PP), each at concentrations of 1-4%. The chicken skin protein hydrolysates (CSPHs) were then fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration into different molecular weight peptides (<1, 1-3, 3-5 and 5-10 kDa) and analysed for antioxidant properties. Results showed that the CSPHs had a significantly (p < 0.05) lower scavenging activity against DPPH radicals when compared to reduced glutathione. The chicken breast skin hydrolysates had significantly higher DPPH scavenging activity than the chicken thigh skin hydrolysates. DPPH scavenging and metal ion chelation increased significantly (p < 0.05) from 29-40% to 86-89%, respectively with increasing proteolytic enzyme concentration. In contrast, the antioxidant properties decreased as peptide size increased. We conclude that CSPHs and their peptide fractions may be used as ingredients in the formulation of functional foods and nutraceuticals for the control and management of oxidative stress-related diseases.© 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Khattab R.Y.,Alexandria University | Eskin M.N.A.,University of Manitoba | Thiyam-Hollander U.,Richardson Center for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

A potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic agent; 4-vinyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol (canolol) was obtained from canola meal in a significant yield via alkaline (NaOH)/enzymatic (ferulic acid esterase) hydrolysis followed by microwave-assisted decarboxylation. The hydrolysis was carried out either through using canola meal directly as a substrate or by using the 70 % aqueous methanolic extract filtrates. The hydrolyzed extracts underwent RP-HPLC analysis which showed that 81.0 and 94.8 % of the total phenolics were hydrolyzed to sinapic acid after the alkaline hydrolysis of the meal and the methanolic extracts, respectively. The enzymatic hydrolysis showed lower conversion rates (49.5 and 58.3 %). The hydrolyzed extracts were consequently decarboxylated using 8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene under microwave irradiation at different conditions. The HPLC profiling of decarboxylated extracts showed that using microwave at 300 Wof microwave power for 12 min brought the highest sinapic acid conversion to canolol (58.3 %) yielding 4.2 mg canolol from each gram of canola meal suggesting that the process could be commercially economical. © AOCS 2013. Source

Chen Y.,University of Manitoba | Thiyam-Hollander U.,University of Manitoba | Thiyam-Hollander U.,Richardson Center for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals | Barthet V.J.,Canadian Grain Commission | Aachary A.A.,University of Manitoba
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Valuable phenolic antioxidants are lost during oil refining, but evaluation of their occurrence in refining byproducts is lacking. Rapeseed and canola oil are both rich sources of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols. The retention and loss of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols in commercially produced expeller-pressed canola oils subjected to various refining steps and the respective byproducts were investigated. Loss of canolol (3) and tocopherols were observed during bleaching (84.9%) and deodorization (37.6%), respectively. Sinapic acid (2) (42.9 μg/g), sinapine (1) (199 μg/g), and canolol (344 μg/g) were found in the refining byproducts, namely, soap stock, spent bleaching clay, and wash water, for the first time. Tocopherols (3.75 mg/g) and other nonidentified phenolic compounds (2.7 mg sinapic acid equivalent/g) were found in deodistillates, a byproduct of deodorization. DPPH radical scavenging confirmed the antioxidant potential of the byproducts. This study confirms the value-added potential of byproducts of refining as sources of endogenous phenolics. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

BACKGROUND: Consumption of a cholesterol lowering dietary portfolio including plant sterols (PS), viscous fibre, soy proteins and nuts for 6 months improves blood lipid profile. Plant sterols reduce blood cholesterol by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption and concerns have been raised whether PS consumption reduces fat soluble vitamin absorption.OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine effects of consumption of a cholesterol lowering dietary portfolio on circulating concentrations of PS and fat soluble vitamins.METHODS: Using a parallel design study, 351 hyperlipidemic participants from 4 centres across Canada were randomized to 1 of 3 groups. Participants followed dietary advice with control or portfolio diet. Participants on routine and intensive portfolio involved 2 and 7 clinic visits, respectively, over 6 months.RESULTS: No changes in plasma concentrations of α and γ tocopherol, lutein, lycopene and retinol, but decreased β-carotene concentrations were observed with intensive (week 12: p = 0.045; week 24: p = 0.039) and routine (week 12: p = 0.031; week 24: p = 0.078) portfolio groups compared to control. However, cholesterol adjusted β-carotene and fat soluble compound concentrations were not different compared to control. Plasma PS concentrations were increased with intensive (campesterol:p = 0.012; β-sitosterol:p = 0.035) and routine (campesterol: p = 0.034; β-sitosterol: p = 0.080) portfolio groups compared to control. Plasma cholesterol-adjusted campesterol and β-sitosterol concentrations were negatively correlated (p < 0.001) with total and LDL-C levels.CONCLUSION: Results demonstrate that consuming a portfolio diet reduces serum total and LDL-C levels while increasing PS values, without altering fat soluble compounds concentrations. The extent of increments of PS with the current study are not deleterious and also maintaining optimum levels of fat soluble vitamins are of paramount necessity to maintain overall metabolism and health. Results indicate portfolio diet as one of the best options for CVD risk reduction.TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00438425. Source

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