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McAllister F.,Johns Hopkins University | Bailey J.M.,Johns Hopkins University | Alsina J.,Johns Hopkins University | Nirschl C.J.,Johns Hopkins University | And 13 more authors.
Cancer Cell | Year: 2014

Many human cancers are dramatically accelerated by chronic inflammation. However, the specific cellular and molecular elements mediating this effect remain largely unknown. Using a murine model of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), we found that KrasG12D induces expression of functional IL-17 receptors on PanIN epithelial cells and also stimulates infiltration of the pancreatic stroma by IL-17-producing immune cells. Both effects are augmented by associated chronic pancreatitis, resulting in functional invivo changes in PanIN epithelial gene expression. Forced IL-17 overexpression dramatically accelerates PanIN initiation and progression, while inhibition of IL-17 signaling using genetic or pharmacologic techniques effectively prevents PanIN formation. Together, these studies suggest that a hematopoietic-to-epithelial IL-17 signaling axis is a potent and requisite driver of PanIN formation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Monin L.,University of Washington | Monin L.,Richard King Mellon Foundation Institute for Pediatric Research | Khader S.A.,University of Washington
Seminars in Immunology | Year: 2014

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infects about one-third of the world's population, with a majority of infected individuals exhibiting latent asymptomatic infection, while 5-10% of infected individuals progress to active pulmonary disease. Research in the past two decades has elucidated critical host immune mechanisms that mediate Mtb control. Among these, chemokines have been associated with numerous key processes that lead to Mtb containment, from recruitment of myeloid cells into the lung to activation of adaptive immunity, formation of protective granulomas and vaccine recall responses. However, imbalances in several key chemokine mediators can alter the delicate balance of cytokines and cellular responses that promote mycobacterial containment, instead precipitating terminal tissue destruction and spread of Mtb infection. In this review, we will describe recent insights in the involvement of chemokines in host responses to Mtb infection and Mtb containment (the good), chemokines contributing to inflammation during TB (the bad), and the role of chemokines in driving cavitation and lung pathology (the ugly). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Manni M.L.,Allergy and Immunology | Trudeau J.B.,University of Pittsburgh | Scheller E.V.,Allergy and Immunology | Mandalapu S.,Allergy and Immunology | And 4 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2014

Asthma is a common respiratory disease affecting ∼300 million people worldwide. Airway inflammation is thought to contribute to asthma pathogenesis, but the direct relationship between inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) remains unclear. This study investigates the role of inflammation in a steroid-insensitive, severe allergic airway disease model and in severe asthmatics stratified by inflammatory profile. First, we used the T-helper (TH)-17 cells adoptive transfer mouse model of asthma to induce pulmonary inflammation, which was lessened by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α neutralization or neutrophil depletion. Although decreased airspace inflammation following TNFα neutralization and neutrophil depletion rescued lung compliance, neither intervention improved AHR to methacholine, and tissue inflammation remained elevated when compared with control. Further, sputum samples were collected and analyzed from 41 severe asthmatics. In severe asthmatics with elevated levels of sputum neutrophils, but low levels of eosinophils, increased inflammatory markers did not correlate with worsened lung function. This subset of asthmatics also had significantly higher levels of TH 17-related cytokines in their sputum compared with severe asthmatics with other inflammatory phenotypes. Overall, this work suggests that lung compliance may be linked with cellular inflammation in the airspace, whereas T-cell-driven AHR may be associated with tissue inflammation and other pulmonary factors. © 2014 Society for Mucosal Immunology. Source


Nguyen N.L.H.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Nguyen N.L.H.,Richard King Mellon Foundation Institute for Pediatric Research | Chen K.,Richard King Mellon Foundation Institute for Pediatric Research | Mcaleer J.,Richard King Mellon Foundation Institute for Pediatric Research | Kolls J.K.,Richard King Mellon Foundation Institute for Pediatric Research
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2013

OX40 ligand (OX40L) is a costimulatory molecule involved in Th2 allergic responses. It has been shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased OX40L expressionin peripheral CD11c cells and controls Th2 responses to Aspergillus fumigatus in vitro in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). To investigate if vitamin D deficiency regulated OX40L and Th2 responses in vivo, we examined the effect of nutritional vitamin D deficiency on costimulatory molecules in CD11c cells and A. fumigatus-induced Th2 responses. Vitamin D-deficient mice showed increased expression of OX40L on lung CD11c cells, and OX40L was critical for enhanced Th2 responsesto A. fumigatus in vivo. In in vitro assays, vitamin D treatment led to vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding in the promoter region of OX40L and significantly decreased the promoter activity of the OX40L promoter. In addition, vitamin D altered NF-βB p50 binding in the OX40L promoter that may be responsible for repression of OX40L expression. These data show that vitamin D can act directly on OX40L, which impacts Th2 responses and supports the therapeutic use of vitamin D in diseases regulated by OX40L. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. Source


Ricks D.M.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Chen K.,Richard King Mellon Foundation Institute for Pediatric Research | Zheng M.,Richard King Mellon Foundation Institute for Pediatric Research | Steele C.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Kolls J.K.,Richard King Mellon Foundation Institute for Pediatric Research
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2013

The opportunistic pathogen Pneumocystis jirovecii is a significant cause of disease in HIV-infected patients and others with immunosuppressive conditions. Pneumocystis can also cause complications in treatment following antiretroviral therapy or reversal of immunosuppressive therapy, as the newly reconstituted immune system can develop a pathological inflammatory response to remaining antigens or a previously undetected infection. To target β-(1,3)-glucan, a structural component of the Pneumocystis cell wall with immune-stimulating properties, we have developed immunoadhesins consisting of the carbohydrate binding domain of Dectin-1 fused to the Fc regions of the 4 subtypes of murine IgG (mIgG). These immunoadhesins bind β-glucan with high affinity, and precoating the surface of zymosan with Dectin-1:Fc can reduce cytokine production by macrophages in an in vitro stimulation assay. All Dectin-1:Fc variants showed specificity of binding to the asci of Pneumocystis murina, but effector activity of the fusion molecules varied depending on Fc subtype. Dectin-1:mIgG2a Fc was able to reduce the viability of P. murina in culture through a complement-dependent mechanism, whereas previous studies have shown the mIgG1 Fc fusion to increase macrophage-dependent killing. In an in vivo challenge model, systemic expression of Dectin-1:mIgG1 Fc significantly reduced ascus burden in the lung. When administered postinfection in a model of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), both Dectin-1:mIgG1 and Dectin-1:mIgG2a Fc reduced hypoxemia despite minimal effects on fungal burden in the lung. Taken together, these data indicate that molecules targeting β-glucan may provide a mechanism for treatment of fungal infection and for modulation of the inflammatory response to Pneumocystis and other pathogens. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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