Ricerca Biosciences LLC

New Concord, OH, United States

Ricerca Biosciences LLC

New Concord, OH, United States
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News Article | May 29, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

NEW YORK, May 29, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Contract Research Outsourcing in US$ Million by the following Service Segments: Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research, and Clinical Research. The report provides separate comprehensive analytics for the US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World. Annual estimates and forecasts are provided for the period 2015 through 2022. Also, a six-year historic analysis is provided for these markets. Read the full report: http://www.reportlinker.com/p04910444/Global-Contract-Research-Outsourcing-Services.html Market data and analytics are derived from primary and secondary research. Company profiles are primarily based on public domain information including company URLs. The report profiles 115 companies including many key and niche players such as - Albany Molecular Research, Inc. - Charles River Laboratories International, Inc. - Chiltern International Ltd. - ICON plc Read the full report: http://www.reportlinker.com/p04910444/Global-Contract-Research-Outsourcing-Services.html I. INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY & PRODUCT DEFINITIONS Study Reliability and Reporting Limitations Disclaimers Data Interpretation & Reporting Level Quantitative Techniques & Analytics Product Definitions and Scope of Study II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW Outsourcing of R&D Projects to Propel CROs Services Market Growth Drivers in a Nutshell Evolving Macro Trends Driving CRO Demand CROs to Significantly Drive Outsourcing Penetration Focus on Efficient, Quality Services to Drive Specialty CROs Market Rise in Investments to Boost Growth Key Therapeutic Areas of Clinical Trial Research Table 1: Global Clinical Trial Services Market by Therapeutic Area: 2016 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Primary Factors Influencing CRO Market Pharma and Biotech Companies to Increase Dependence on CROs Outlook Notable Regional Developments Future Model of CRO 2. COMPETITIVE SCENARIO CRO - A Highly Fragmented Market Table 2: Leading Players in the Global Contract Research Outsourcing Market (2016E): Percentage Breakdown of Revenues by Player (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 3: Percentage Breakup of Life Sciences Revenues (2016) of Major Players by Service Type- Preclinical, Phase I, Phase IIA, Phase IIB, Phase III, Phase IV/ Post-Approval, Central Lab and Others Large CROs Seek the Inorganic Growth Route Global CRO Marketspace - A Review of the M&A Activity in the Recent Years Select M&A Activity in the Global CRO Market Noteworthy Contracts of Major CROs CROs Adept with New Technologies to See More Business in Future Streamlining Development of Novel Trial Designs CROs with End-to End Capabilities in Demand Key Opportunities for CROs Technological Superiority - A Definite Advantage Strategies and Tactical Programs for CROs Survival Strategies in Mature CRO Markets Exit from the Industry Expand Scale Capture Niche Segments Strategies to Tap Opportunities in Growing Markets Mobilize Funds Expand Other Services Upgrade Technological and Knowledge Base Form Sub-Contracts or Regional Alliances 3. GROWTH DRIVERS, MARKET TRENDS & ISSUES Increased Spend on R&D Outsourcing Table 4: Global Pharmaceutical R&D Spending (US$ Billion) for the Years 2010 through 2017 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 5: Percentage Breakdown of Total Number of Compounds in Pipeline by Phase for Pre-Clinical, Phase I, Phase II and Phase III: 2016E (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Enhancing Site Selection and Patient Enrollment CROs Enter into Alliances to Improve Efficiencies Adoption of Digital Technologies Gains Pace Rising Late-Stage Services Demand and Budget Restraints Drive Market Growth Toxicology Services Gain Notable Attention Pharma Companies Enter into Licensing Agreements with Biotech Companies for New Drug Discovery - A Mutually Beneficial Strategy Pharmaceutical & Biopharmaceutical Trends to Support CRO Penetration Table 6: Global Biopharma % R&D Outsourcing (2014-2020) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 7: New FDA Drug Approvals (2010-2016): Breakdown of Number of Approvals by Type for New Molecular Entity (NME) and Biologic License Application (BLA) Approvals (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Focus on Regulatory Oversight and Enhanced Transparency Bodes Well for CROs eClinical Solutions Gain Traction Other Noteworthy Market Trends CROs Monetize Data Service Differentiation - A Sustaining Strategy CROs Tie Up with Diagnostic Companies for Patients Research Networks Move to Cloud Application of Mobile Devices to Collect Real Time Data Gains Ground CROs Provide Exclusive Offers to Lure Big Pharma Challenges Faced by Contract Research Organizations On-shore versus Offshore CRO Business Cutthroat Competition among CROs Management of Clinical Investigation Cost Containment Safety Concerns on Clinical Trials Pipeline Blocks Surging Global Population Offers Increased Growth Opportunities Table 8: Top 25 Countries Worldwide in Terms of Population: 2015 & 2016 (In Million) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Aging Population Boosts Opportunities for CRO Table 9: Global Population Statistics for the 65+ Age Group (2015) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 10: Comparison of Aging Population by Country (1980, 2015 & 2050): Percentage Share of Population Aged Above-65 Years of the Overall Population for Select Countries (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Increasing Healthcare Expenditure to Spur Demand for Generics Table 11: Healthcare Spending as a Percentage of GDP by Region (2016E) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 4. CONTRACT RESEARCH OUTSOURCING - AN INSIGHT Concept Contract Research Organizations (CRO) Contract Research Outsourcing Major CRO Services Ancillary CRO Services Advantages from CRO Drug Discovery Pre-Clinical Studies Clinical Research - Factors Encouraging CRO Services at Various Phases Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV 5. RECENT INDUSTRY ACTIVITY WuXi AppTec Takes Over HD Biosciences Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings to Acquire Pharmaceutical Product Development PRA Health Sciences and Takeda Pharmaceutical Inks New Partnership AMRI Enters into Alliance with Bruker Daltonics and HighRes Biosolutions Pharmaceutical Product Development Establishes Rare Disease and Pediatric Center of Excellence Pharmaceutical Product Development to Start Clinical Research Unit in Las Vegas Bracket Acquires CLINapps PAREXEL International to Acquire ExecuPharm Cinven to Takeover BioClinica ICON to Takeover Clinical Research Management Pharmaceutical Product Development Acquires Evidera Velocity Fund Partners Acquires Indipharm Bioclinica Snaps Up Compass Research Charles River Laboratories International Takes Over Agilux Laboratories Charles River Laboratories International Snaps Up Blue Stream Laboratories Charles River Laboratories International Acquires WIL Research Pharmaron Announces the Acquisition of Quotient Bioresearch Amulet Capital Partners Acquires SynteractHCR Holdings IMS Health Merges with Quintiles Almac Clinical Technologies Enters into Partnership with inVentiv Health CSSi LifeSciences Unveils Fully Integrated Medical Device CRO Lovelace Biomedical Commences Operations as Preclinical CRO PAREXEL International Inks Services Agreement with Pfizer BioDuro Commences Operations as a Contract Research and Manufacturing Firm Charles River Laboratories International Forms Partnership with BioMotiv Laboratory Corporation of America Acquires Covance Charles River Laboratories International Snaps Up Oncotest Chiltern Acquires Theorem Clinical Research Charles River Laboratories International Takes Over Celsis International Albany Molecular Research Unveils Integrated Drug Discovery Center 6. FOCUS ON SELECT GLOBAL PLAYERS Albany Molecular Research, Inc. (USA) Charles River Laboratories International, Inc. (USA) Chiltern International Ltd. (UK) ICON plc (Ireland) INC Research, LLC (USA) InVentiv Health, Inc. (USA) Jubilant Biosys Ltd. (India) Laboratory Corporation of America® Holdings (USA) PAREXEL International Corp. (USA) Pharmaceutical Product Development, LLC. (USA) Pharmaron (China) PRA Health Sciences, Inc. (USA) Quintiles IMS Holdings, Inc. (USA) Ricerca Biosciences LLC (USA) Sygnature Discovery Limited (UK) SynteractHCR (USA) WuXi AppTec (China) 7. GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE Table 12: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 13: World Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 14: World 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 15: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing for Drug Discovery by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 16: World Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing for Drug Discovery by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 17: World 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing for Drug Discovery by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 18: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing for Preclinical Research by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 19: World Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing for Preclinical Research by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 20: World 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing for Preclinical Research by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 21: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing for Clinical Research by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 22: World Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing for Clinical Research by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 23: World 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing for Clinical Research by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III. MARKET 1. THE UNITED STATES A.Market Analysis Outlook Drug Developers Rely on CROs to Improve Trial Efficiency and Cost Savings Trial Services Witness Higher Demand Strong Demand for Data Management Services Focus on Innovation and Productivity CROs Focus on Adaptive Clinical Trials Risk-based Monitoring Catches Pace Strategic Corporate Developments Key Players B.Market Analytics Table 24: US Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 25: US Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 26: US 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 2. CANADA Market Analysis Table 27: Canadian Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 28: Canadian Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 29: Canadian 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 3. JAPAN A.Market Analysis Strategic Corporate Development B.Market Analytics Table 30: Japanese Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 31: Japanese Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 32: Japanese 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 4. EUROPE A.Market Analysis Outlook Providers Expand Services in Downstream Drug Development Strategic corporate developments Key Players B.Market Analytics Table 33: European Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 34: European Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 35: European 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 5. ASIA-PACIFIC A.Market Analysis Outlook Asia-Pacific to Push up Volume Share in CRO Market R&D Outsourcing in Life Sciences on Rise Focus on Select Regional Markets China Market with Strong Growth Potential India Australia Popular Destination for Early Phase Clinical Trials Cost Savings through Tax Incentives Supportive Regulatory Framework Government Focus on Reducing Cost and Time Superior Clinical Trial Quality Strategic Corporate Development Key Players B.Market Analytics Table 36: Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing by Geographic Region - China, India and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 37: Asia-Pacific Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing by Geographic Region - China, India and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 38: Asia-Pacific 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for China, India and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 39: Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 40: Asia-Pacific Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 41: Asia-Pacific 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 6. REST OF WORLD A.Market Analysis Outlook Providers with Specialized Research Techniques to Boost Latin American CRO Market B.Market Analytics Table 42: Rest of World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 43: Rest of World Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 44: Rest of World 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) IV. COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE Total Companies Profiled: 115 (including Divisions/Subsidiaries - 120) The United States (47) Canada (5) Japan (1) Europe (27) - France (2) - Germany (6) - The United Kingdom (3) - Spain (1) - Rest of Europe (15) Asia-Pacific (Excluding Japan) (35) Latin America (4) Read the full report: http://www.reportlinker.com/p04910444/Global-Contract-Research-Outsourcing-Services.html About Reportlinker ReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution. Reportlinker finds and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need - instantly, in one place. http://www.reportlinker.com __________________________ Contact Clare: clare@reportlinker.com US: (339)-368-6001 Intl: +1 339-368-6001 To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-contract-research-outsourcing---services-300465052.html


Ruff K.J.,ESM Technologies LLC | Endres J.R.,AIBMR Life Science Inc. | Clewell A.E.,AIBMR Life Science Inc. | Szabo J.R.,Ricerca Biosciences LLC | Schauss A.G.,AIBMR Life Science Inc.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM®) is a novel dietary ingredient that contains naturally occurring glycosaminoglycans and proteins essential for maintaining healthy joint and connective tissues. NEM® was evaluated for safety via in vitro and in vivo toxicological studies. This included testing for cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, acute oral toxicity, and 90-day repeated-dose oral toxicity. NEM® did not exhibit any cytotoxic effects at a dose of 100 μg in an in vitro human cell viability assay after incubation for up to 20. h. NEM® did not exhibit any genotoxic effects in an in vitro assay of four strains of histidine-dependent Salmonella typhimurium and one strain of tryptophan-dependent Escherichia coli at a dose of up to 5000 μg/plate. NEM® did not exhibit any signs of acute toxicity in rats at a single oral dose of up to 2000. mg/kg body weight, nor signs of toxicity (via urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, or histopathological evaluation) in rats at a repeated oral dose of up to 2000. mg/kg body weight per day for 90. days. The results of these studies suggest that NEM® may be safe for human consumption. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Enoru J.O.,Ricerca Biosciences LLC | Yang B.,Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center | Krishnamachari S.,Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center | Villanueva E.,Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative aging disorder in which postmortemPD brain exhibits neuroinflammation, as well as synucleinopathy-associated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzymatic activity loss. Based on our translational research, we began evaluating the PD-repurposing-potential of an anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and PP2A stimulatoryoral drug that is FDA-approved for multiple sclerosis, FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya1). We also designed two new FTY720 analogues, FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy, with modifications that affect drug potency and mitochondrial localization, respectively. Herein, we describe the metabolic stability and metabolic profiling of FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy in liver microsomes and hepatocytes. Using mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human liver microsomes the intrinsic clearance of FTY720-C2 was 22.5, 79.5, 6.0, 20.2 and 18.3 μL/min/mg; and for FTY720-Mitoxy was 1.8, 7.8, 1.4, 135.0 and 17.5 μL/min/mg, respectively. In hepatocytes, both FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy were metabolized from the octyl side chain, generating a series of carboxylic acids similar to the parent FTY720, but without phosphorylated metabolites. To assess absorption and distribution, we gave equivalent single intravenous (IV) or oral doses of FTY720-C2 or FTY720-Mitoxy to C57BL/6 mice, with two mice per time point evaluated. After IV delivery, both FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy were rapidly detected in plasma and brain; and reached peak concentrations at the first sampling time points. After oral dosing, FTY720-C2 was present in plasma and brain, although FTY720-Mitoxy was not orally bioavailable. Brain-to-plasma ratio of both compounds increased time-dependently, suggesting a preferential partitioningto the brain. PP2A activity in mouse adrenal gland increased ∼2-fold after FTY720-C2 or FTY720-Mitoxy, as compared to untreated controls. In summary, FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy both (i) crossed the blood-brain-barrier; (ii) produced metabolites similar to FTY720, except without phosphorylatedspecies that cause S1P1-mediated-immunosuppression; and (iii) stimulated in vivo PP2A activity, all of which encourage additional preclinical assessment. © 2016 Enoru et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Savides M.C.,Ricerca Biosciences LLC | Pohland R.C.,Elanco Animal Health | Wilkie D.A.,Ohio State University | Abbott J.A.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Previous studies have demonstrated that a single, topical application of a novel, long-acting transdermal fentanyl solution provides analgesic fentanyl concentrations for at least 4days. The objective of this study was to describe the margin of safety following application at multiples of the therapeutic dose. Twenty-four laboratory dogs were administered a single placebo or 1×, 3×, or 5× multiple of the dose of 2.6mg/kg (50μL/kg) to the ventral abdominal skin and observed for 14days. Plasma fentanyl concentrations increased in proportion to dose. Adverse reactions in the 1× group were transient and included a low prevalence (≤33%) of mild sedation, reduced food intake, modest weight loss, and minimal reductions in heart rate and rectal temperature. Moderate to severe sedation emerged in the 3× and 5× groups, which was associated with a dose-limiting reduction in food and water intake, necessitating maintenance fluid replacement for the first 2days following application. Also observed in the higher-dose groups were an increased prevalence of abnormal stools and transient lens opacities. All abnormal health observations were completely resolved prior to necropsy on day 14, and there were no histological abnormalities identified. These data support the safe use of the 1× dose and describe the outcome of an overdose of up to 5× dose in the absence of opioid reversal. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Freise K.J.,Nexcyon Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Savides M.C.,Ricerca Biosciences LLC | Riggs K.L.,Elanco Animal Health | Owens J.G.,Elanco Animal Health | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

A novel, transdermal fentanyl solution (TFS) was developed that delivers sustained concentrations of fentanyl for days following a single application. The pharmacokinetics following a single topical dose was examined. Eighteen adult Beagle dogs were divided into three groups of six dogs (3M, 3F). Each group was administered a single dose of 1.3 (25), 2.6 (50), or 5.2mg/kg (100μL/kg) of TFS. The dose was applied to the clipped, ventral abdominal skin using a 1-mL tuberculin syringe. Immediately following dosing, collars were placed on each dog through 72h to prevent direct licking of the application site. Serial jugular venous blood samples were collected at 0 (predosing), 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120, 144, 168, 240, 336, 408, and 504h after dosing and assayed for plasma fentanyl concentration. Fentanyl was rapidly detected following application with a mean absorption lag time (tlag) of 0.333h in the 1.3mg/kg group and 0 in the other two groups. The mean Cmax increased with dose and were 2.28, 2.67, and 4.71ng/mL in the 1.3, 2.6 and 5.2mg/kg dose groups, respectively. Mean terminal half-lives were 53.7, 69.6, and 103h in the 1.3, 2.6, and 5.2mg/kg dose groups, respectively. The mean AUC0-LLOQ from lowest to highest dose groups were 157, 268, and 645ng·h/mL and were dose proportional with a R2 value of 0.9818. Adverse reactions were limited to the highest dose group and included sedation (four of six dogs) and decreased food and water intake (one dog). A dose of 2.6mg/kg (50μL/kg) is proposed for further development studies based on the lack of adverse events that were observed compared to the 5.2mg/kg group and a more rapid onset of action and longer duration of action compared to the 1.3mg/kg group. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Thiazolones with an exo-norbornylamine at the 2-position and an isopropyl group on the 5-position are potent 11β-HSD1 inhibitors. However, the C-5 center was prone to epimerization in vitro and in vivo, forming a less potent diastereomer. A methyl group was added to the C-5 position to eliminate epimerization, leading to the discovery of (S)-2-((1S,2S,4R)-bicyclo[2.2.1] heptan-2-ylamino)-5-isopropyl-5-methylthiazol-4(5H)-one (AMG 221). This compound decreased fed blood glucose and insulin levels and reduced body weight in diet-induced obesity mice. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | BioSTAT Consultants Inc., Ricerca Biosciences LLC and Aratana Therapeutics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics | Year: 2016

A new anti-inflammatory drug for pain (grapiprant) was recently shown to have minimal side effects following chronic (9-month) daily oral dose of 6 or 50mg/kg suspension. The current study compares the pharmacokinetics of the formulation used in the chronic safety study to those of the tablet formulation that will be marketed upon FDA approval. Sixteen Beagle dogs were randomized to receive single doses of either 6 or 50mg/kg grapiprant as both suspension and table formulations within a cross-over design with a 15-day washout. Clinical observations were vomiting in one high-dose suspension dog and loose stools in two dogs, one in each 6mg/kg formulation group. For both formulations, grapiprant reached a maximum concentration within two hours. The tablet formulation had better bioavailability, with AUC

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