Ricerca Biosciences

New Concord, OH, United States

Ricerca Biosciences

New Concord, OH, United States
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Barrow P.C.,Ricerca Biosciences
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

A pediatric assessment is now a required component of every New Drug Application in North America or Marketing Authorization Application in Europe, unless a waiver has been granted previously. Nonclinical juvenile toxicity studies are usually required as part of this assessment. The protocols for juvenile toxicity studies are devised in consultation with the FDA or EMEA. It is important to approach the regulatory authority well in advance in order not to delay the marketing authorization of the drug and to confirm the need or not to perform a preclinical evaluation in juvenile animals. The choice of species and the design of juvenile studies are based on a series of complex considerations, including: the therapeutic use of the drug, the age at which children will be treated, the duration of treatment, and potential age- or species-specific differences in pharmacokinetics or toxicity.


Gaikowski M.P.,U.S. Geological Survey | Mushtaq M.,Schering | Cassidy P.,Ricerca Biosciences | Meinertz J.R.,U.S. Geological Survey | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

Aquaflor®, a 50% feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol is available globally to control mortality associated with economically significant systemic bacterial diseases of fish. Florfenicol (FFC) is effective in controlling mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia Oreochromis sp. when administered in medicated feed at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/d for 10 consecutive days. Our objective was to characterize the depletion of the FFC marker residue, florfenicol amine (FFA), from the edible tissue of market-weight Nile tilapia O. niloticus x O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus x O. aureus offered feed medicated with FFC at a nominal dose rate of 15 mg/kg BW/d for 12 days. Near market-weight tilapia were obtained from a commercial tilapia farm, distributed to 2 single pass (one for Nile tilapia and one for hybrid tilapia), flow-through systems and maintained at 27 °C under a 15 h light:9 h dark photoperiod over a 41-d pre-dosing period. During the dosing period, tilapia were offered feed medicated with FFC at a concentration of 1.479 g/kg at 1% BW daily divided in three equal offerings. The initial 10-d dosing period was extended to 12 d because one tank did not consume > 75% of the feed offered during the first two dosing days. The total dose consumed by fish in each of the 2 tanks ranged from 147 to 167 mg/kg. Once during the pre-dose period and on days 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the post-dose period, groups of fish were indiscriminately removed from each tank, measured for weight and length, scaled, filleted, and the skin-on fillets stored at <-70 °C. Frozen fillets were individually homogenized, extracted, and FFA concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Florfenicol amine is rapidly eliminated from tilapia fillet after withdrawal from medication and depletion followed first-order kinetics with an estimated half-life of 2.32 d. The FFA tolerance limit, calculated as the 99th percentile of the potential residue level at 95% confidence, had depleted to less than the 1 μg/g maximum residue level by 6.14 d after the dosing period.


Allais L.,Ricerca Biosciences | Reynaud L.,Ricerca Biosciences
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7). Its availability, practicality in housing and in mating as well as its large size makes the rabbit the preferred choice as a non-rodent species. The study protocols are essentially similar to those established for the rat (Chapter 9), with some particularities. The study designs are well defined in guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world. As for the rat, large litter sizes and extensive background data in the rabbit are valuable criteria for an optimal assessment of in utero development of the embryo or fetus and for the detection of potential external or internal fetal malformations. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Barrow P.C.,CiToxLAB | Reynaud L.,Ricerca Biosciences
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

The regulatory toxicology report is an unusual document that requires a particular skill to write. The report must be clear, accurate, concise, and focused. A clear and direct writing style is required. The end-users of the report will hope to find the information they seek with as little effort as possible. Few, or none, will read the entire document. The author should aim to appease the user by obliging him to read as little text and turn as few pages as possible. This chapter gives tips and guidance on how to present the experimental data and write the narrative text in the final study report for a teratology study. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Barrow P.C.,CiToxLAB | Allais L.,Ricerca Biosciences
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Preventative and therapeutic vaccines are increasingly used during pregnancy and present special considerations for developmental toxicity testing. The various components of the vaccine formulation (i.e., protein or polysaccharide antigen, adjuvants, and excipients) need to be assessed for direct effects on the developing conceptus. In addition, possible adverse influences of the induced antibodies on fetal and/or postnatal development need to be evaluated. A guidance document on the preclinical testing of preventative and therapeutic vaccines for developmental toxicity was issued by the FDA in 2006. Preclinical studies are designed to assess possible influences of vaccines on pre- and postnatal development. The choice of model animal for these experiments is influenced by species differences in the timing and extent of the transfer of the induced maternal antibodies to the fetus. The cross-placental transport of maternal immunoglobulins generally only occurs in late gestation and tends to be greater in humans and monkeys than in non-primate species. For many vaccines, the rabbit shows a greater rate of prenatal transfer of the induced antibodies than rodents. For biotechnology-derived vaccines that are not immunogenic in lower species, nonhuman primates may be the only appropriate models. It may be advisable to test new adjuvants using the ICH study designs for conventional pharmaceuticals in addition to the developmental toxicity study with the final vaccine formulation. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Leroy M.,Ricerca Biosciences | Allais L.,Ricerca Biosciences
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

The rat is the rodent species of choice for the regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics, such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. Many decades of experience and extensive data have accumulated for both general and developmental toxicology investigations in this species. The high fertility and large litter size of the rat are advantages for teratogenicity testing. The study designs are well defined in the regulatory guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world. Teratology studies address maternal- and embryo-toxicity following exposure during the period of organogenesis. This chapter describes the design and conduct of a teratology study in the rat in compliance with the regulatory guidelines. The procedures for the handling and housing of the pregnant animals, the caesarean examinations and the sampling of fetuses for morphological examinations are described. The utility and design of preliminary studies and the inclusion of satellite animals in the main study for toxicokinetic sampling are discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Leroy M.,Ricerca Biosciences | Jocteur-Monrozier A.,Ricerca Biosciences
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

This chapter describes methods for the examination of fetal abdominal and thoracic soft tissues by microdissection on either fresh (non-rodent) or fixed (rodent) specimens in order to detect structural abnormalities. With hundreds of fetuses examined for each species (rodent and non-rodent) in regulatory reproductive toxicity assessments (ICH, http://www.ich.org/fileadmin/Public-Web- Site/ICH-Products/Guidelines/Multidisciplinary/M3-R2/Step4/M3-R2-Guideline.pdf, 2009; ICH, http://www.ich.org/fileadmin/Public-Web-Site/ICH-Products/Guidelines/ Safety/S5-R2/Step4/S5-R2-Guideline.pdf, 2005), microdissection techniques allow a thorough and relatively rapid examination of fetuses for soft tissue abnormalities. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Marsden E.,Ricerca Biosciences | Leroy M.,Ricerca Biosciences
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

The rat is the routine species of choice as the rodent model for regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. However, the rat is not always suitable for pharmacological, toxicological, immunogenic, pharmacokinetic, or even practical reasons. Under such circumstances, the mouse offers an alternative for finding a suitable rodent model acceptable to the regulatory authorities. Since all essential routes of administration are possible, the short reproductive cycle and large litter size of the mouse make it a species well adapted for use in teratology studies. Given that good quality animals, including virgin mated females, can be acquired relatively easily and inexpensively, the mouse has been used in reproductive toxicity studies for decades and study protocols are well established. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Reynaud L.,Ricerca Biosciences | Marsden E.,Ricerca Biosciences
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Under normal circumstances, fertility and embryotoxicity studies are run separately according to the ICH S5(R2) guideline for the detection of toxicity to reproduction of medicinal products (1). However, the flexible approach of the S5(R2) guideline also allows the reproduction stages covered in the fertility and embryo-fetal development studies (stages A to D) to be combined into a single study design. The administration period covers the pre-mating and gestation phases through to closure of the hard palate. The principal advantages of the combined study include reductions in the number of animals required and cost. Although the rat is the routine species of choice, the mouse may also be used. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Reynaud L.,Ricerca Biosciences | Jocteur-Monrozier A.,Ricerca Biosciences
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

A skeletal examination of fetuses is required in regulatory embryo-fetal development studies. This chapter describes a method of skeletal examination using alizarin staining. All fetuses are removed from the mother by caesarean section before birth. The fetuses are first examined externally. For larger species (rabbit and minipig), an internal examination can be performed on the fresh soft tissues by microdissection. For smaller species, such as the rat and mouse, half of each litter is fixed for internal soft tissue examination. The other half is used for skeletal examination. A rapid examination of the fresh soft tissues is performed before evisceration and fixation. The staining process takes several days. Following staining, all bones are examined from the head to the tail, in ventral and dorsal positions. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Loading Ricerca Biosciences collaborators
Loading Ricerca Biosciences collaborators