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Chen M.-H.,Rice Research Unit | Fjellstrom R.G.,Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center | Christensen E.F.,Rice Research Unit | Bergman C.J.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2010

Four Waxy haplotypes, previously identified as each having a different combination of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Waxy gene, were highly correlated with apparent amylose content and pasting properties, which are important grain quality traits for predicting cooked rice (Oryza sativa L.) texture and processing properties (Chen et al. in J Cereal Sci 47:536-545, 2008a; Chen et al. in J Cereal Sci 48:781-788, 2008b). Three allele-specific PCR markers were developed to genotype the three aforementioned functional SNPs in a single PCR amplification. Each marker contained two allele-specific primers and one common primer. For each marker, the two allele-specific primers differed by one base at the 3′-end to provide discrimination of SNP alleles, and were labeled with unique fluorescence probes. An additional mismatched base, the third base from the 3′-end, was inserted in some allele-specific primers to increase selectivity. The amplification step of the PCR thermal cycling program was initially set for 20× touch-down cycles with the annealing temperature of the first cycle approximately 6°C above the thermal melting temperature of all three primers at a touch-down rate of -0.3°C per cycle, and followed by 25× regular thermal cycles with the annealing temperature at their thermal melting temperature. The allelic genotypes for each SNP were distinguished from each other by both their differential primer-allele fluorescences and their amplification product lengths. The simplicity of these assays makes it easy to utilize these markers as part of a marker-assisted selection strategy in rice breeding programs selecting for these important grain quality traits. © 2010 US Government.

Heuberger A.L.,Colorado State University | Lewis M.R.,Colorado State University | Chen M.-H.,Rice Research Unit | Brick M.A.,Colorado State University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Emerging evidence supports that cooked rice (Oryza sativa L.) contains metabolites with biomedical activities, yet little is known about the genetic diversity that is responsible for metabolite variation and differences in health traits. Metabolites from ten diverse varieties of cooked rice were detected using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. A total of 3,097 compounds were detected, of which 25% differed among the ten varieties. Multivariate analyses of the metabolite profiles showed that the chemical diversity among the varieties cluster according to their defined subspecies classifications: indica, japonica, and aus. Metabolite-specific genetic diversity in rice was investigated by analyzing a collection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes from biochemical pathways of nutritional importance. Two classes of bioactive compounds, phenolics and vitamin E, contained nonsynonymous SNPs and SNPs in the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions for genes in their biosynthesis pathways. Total phenolics and tocopherol concentrations were determined to examine the effect of the genetic diversity among the ten varieties. Per gram of cooked rice, total phenolics ranged from 113.7 to 392.6 μg (gallic acid equivalents), and total tocopherols ranged between 7.2 and 20.9 μg. The variation in the cooked rice metabolome and quantities of bioactive components supports that the SNP-based genetic diversity influenced nutritional components in rice, and that this approach may guide rice improvement strategies for plant and human health. © 2010 Heuberger et al.

Barabaschi D.,Genomics Research Center | Tondelli A.,Genomics Research Center | Desiderio F.,Genomics Research Center | Volante A.,Rice Research Unit | And 3 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2015

The genomic revolution of the past decade has greatly improved our understanding of the genetic make-up of living organisms. The sequencing of crop genomes has completely changed our vision and interpretation of genome organization and evolution. Re-sequencing allows the identification of an unlimited number of markers as well as the analysis of germplasm allelic diversity based on allele mining approaches. High throughput marker technologies coupled with advanced phenotyping platforms provide new opportunities for discovering marker-trait associations which can sustain genomic-assisted breeding. The availability of genome sequencing information is enabling genome editing (site-specific mutagenesis), to obtain gene sequences desired by breeders. This review illustrates how next generation sequencing-derived information can be used to tailor genomic tools for different breeders' needs to revolutionize crop improvement. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Laino P.,Genomics Research Center | Russo M.P.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrumicoltura E Le Colture Mediterranee | Guardo M.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrumicoltura E Le Colture Mediterranee | Reforgiato-Recupero G.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrumicoltura E Le Colture Mediterranee | And 3 more authors.
Physiologia Plantarum | Year: 2016

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the causal agent of various diseases with dramatic effects on citrus crops worldwide. Most Citrus species, grown on their own roots, are symptomless hosts for many CTV isolates. However, depending on different scion-rootstock combination, CTV infection should result in distinct syndromes, being 'tristeza' the more severe one, leading to a complete decline of the susceptible plants in a few weeks. Transcriptomic analyses revealed several genes involved either in defense response, or systemic acquired resistance, as well as transcription factors and components of the phosphorylation cascades, to be differentially regulated during CTV infection in Citrus aurantifolia species. To date little is known about the molecular mechanism of this host-pathogen interaction, and about the rootstock effect on citrus response to CTV infection. In this work, the response to CTV infection has been investigated in tolerant and susceptible scion-rootstock combinations by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). A total of 125 protein spots have been found to be differently accumulated and/or phosphorylated between the two rootstock combinations. Downregulation in tolerant plants upon CTV infection was detected for proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and defense response, suggesting a probable acclimation response able to minimize the systemic effects of virus infection. Some of these proteins resulted to be modulated also in absence of virus infection, revealing a rootstock effect on scion proteome modulation. Moreover, the phospho-modulation of proteins involved in ROS scavenging and defense response, further supports their involvement either in scion-rootstock crosstalk or in the establishment of tolerance/susceptibility to CTV infection. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

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