Rice Research and Training Center

Sakha, Egypt

Rice Research and Training Center

Sakha, Egypt
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Gaafar R.M.,Tanta University | El Shanshoury A.R.,Tanta University | El Hisseiwy A.A.,Rice Research and Training Center | AbdAlhak M.A.,Tanta University | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2017

It is known that hybrid rice yields 15–20% over inbred varieties in first generation because of heterosis. However, heterosis is normally broken due to segregation. Applying apomixis produces plants as a clone of mother plant and overcomes the problem of breaking heterosis. In order to fix heterosis in the Egyptian rice Hybrid1, their seeds were mutagenized in 0.2% colchicine for two time periods 24 and 50 h. After colchicine mutagenesis, rice seedlings were grown in the field till maturation and the resulted M1 seeds were sown in season 2 and plants were selected based on yield and homogeneity. Then, seeds were sown to be evaluated in season 3. Pollen fertility test, esterase isozyme analysis, and flow cytometry seed screening were performed to confirm the results of field selection of populations identical to control. Pollen fertility examination was performed on the populations of the third season. Pollens of populations 304, 298, 292, 284, 281, 154 and 149 were found to be completely sterile. However, these plants had high seed set percentage. The flow cytometry screening of the six yield-based identical populations and the control seeds showed that populations 220, 339, 351 and 298 have higher nuclear DNA content (C2) than untreated hybrid (C2 & C3). Results of flow cytometry clearly showed that population 298 has one peak (C2) and its endosperm was formed autonomously without fertilization. Although its pollen grains were sterile, it showed high seed set percentage. This indicates that heterosis was completely fixed by apomixis in this population. © 2017

Ahmad Z.,Tottori University | Shah P.,Nwfp Agricultural University | El-Sharkawi H.,Rice Research and Training Center | Gama P.B.S.,Tottori University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2010

In the recent scenario of limiting water and land resources, new cultural techniques are being worked out to get maximum benefits from the available resources. Bed planting is one of these techniques which got renowned for water conservation, efficient fertilizer use and other benefits while flat planting is less expensive as well as easy to perform. In spite of this recognition, these new planting techniques could not fetch the attention of crop researchers for sugar beet cultivation. Therefore, the current experiment was designed to compare the conventional ridge planting method (ridges 50 cm apart) with new bed and flat planting techniques under different row geometries. The two sugar beet varieties, Kawe Terma and KWS 1451, were grown on ridges (40 cm, 50 cm and 60 cm apart, pair of ridges 50 cm apart and strip of three ridges 50 cm apart), beds (with two rows 80 cm apart and with three rows 120 cm apart) and flat (with two rows 50 cm apart and with three rows 50 cm apart). Results of the study showed that beet growth (mean leaf area, root diameter and root weight) and quality (sugar percentage, Brix percentage, purity percentage and sugar yield) was significantly affected by new planting methods. The mean root diameter of beets reached a maximum of 12.7 cm on beds with two rows. The mean root weight of beets increased on pair of ridges (1.54 kg) and on the recommended ridge planting method. Sugar and purity percentage of beets increased by 1.1% and 2.7%, respectively, on beds with two rows as compared to the beets planted on conventional ridge spacing. Sugar yield was equally higher on beds with two rows and the recommended ridge planting method. It was observed that the growth and quality of Kawe Terma was exceptionally better than the variety KWS 1451. Meaningfull comparisons were also performed among the different planting methods to evaluate the overall performance of ridge, bed and flat planting methods and results have been discussed. It can be inferred from the results that equally better growth and higher yields can be achieved by replacing the current ridge planting method with new two-rows-bed planting technique.

El-Nashar Y.I.,King Saud University | El-Nashar Y.I.,Horticultural Research Institute | Ammar M.H.,King Saud University | Ammar M.H.,Rice Research and Training Center
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2016

Six different colchicine concentrations: 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 ppm, in combination with four soaking time treatments (1, 2, 3, and 4 h), were selected to assess the effects on germination, vegetative growth, and flower yield components in calendula plants. The molecular diversity among the treatments was assessed using ten SRAP marker combinations. Seed soaking in colchicine significantly enhanced both the fresh and the dry shoot and root masses, flowering date, number of flowers per plant, and flower diameter. At 1200-ppm colchicine combined with a 4-h soaking time, a superior effect on seed germination was observed, whereas 800 ppm for 4 h produced the highest number of flowers and the largest flower diameter. The earliest flowering time was found at 800 ppm combined with a short soaking time (1 h), while the 4-h soaking time with 800 ppm, is recommended for growing calendula outdoors, since it enhances flower development. At the molecular level, 752 fragments were successfully amplified using the SRAP primers, with 280 genetic loci found throughout the calendula genome. The polymorphism percentage ranged from 79 to 100% and the polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged between 0.85 and 0.97. The high number of detected loci and PIC values suggests a great power of SRAP markers in detecting mutant molecular diversity. Our results clearly show the existence of genetic variation among colchicine treated calendula plants and the clustering of the studied mutants was concordant with the colchicine concentration used. © FUNPEC-RP.

El-kazzaz M.K.,Kafr El Sheikh University | Salem E.A.,Rice Research and Training Center | Ghoneim K.E.,Kafr El Sheikh University | Elsharkawy M.M.,Kafr El Sheikh University | And 2 more authors.
International Medical Journal | Year: 2015

Rice is affected by quite a number of diseases that results in high yield losses. Among the fungal diseases, kernel smut is known to occur worldwide in many countries. Biological method of plant disease management seems to be an alternative to chemical fungicides in managing rice diseases. In this study, effects of some bioagents on Tilletia barclayana, the causal agent of rice kernel smut were investigated, under greenhouse conditions. The study focused on mechanism mediating suppression of T. barclayana by investigating the effect of different bioagents on the activities of defense related enzymes, i.e peroxidase (POX), polyphenoloxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). Among 15 fungal and bacterial isolates, Bacillus pumilus was found to be the most promising bioagent (BCA) for controlling the disease. Generally, the tested bioagents significantly increased the activities of defense related enzymes and total protein content compared with control treatment. Obtained data suggests use of efficient and environmentally safe bioagents to control rice kernel smut disease.

El-kazzaz M.K.,Kafr El Sheikh University | Salem E.A.,Rice Research and Training Center | Ghoneim K.E.,Kafr El Sheikh University | Elsharkawy M.M.,Kafr El Sheikh University | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2015

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) at three concentrations i.e. 2.5, 5 and 7 mM and plant extracts from pick tooth (Ammi visnaga), liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), artemisia (Artemisia judaica), mint (Mentha viridis), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) on the infection of rice kernel smut disease caused by Tilletia barclayana were studied. Spraying of rice plants with different concentrations of SA at seven days before infection was the most effective treatment against pathogen infection. Among all plant extract treatments, M. viridis and S. aromaticum were the most effective treatments. Additionally, our results showed increased levels of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chitinase as well as total protein contents in the treated plants compared with the control. In conclusion, accumulations of these oxidative enzymes in plants treated with SA and plant extracts provide their role in the activation of induced resistance against T. barclayana. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Ammar M.H.,King Saud University | Ammar M.H.,Rice Research and Training Center | Khan A.M.,King Saud University | Migdadi H.M.,King Saud University | And 3 more authors.
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

This study was carried out to identify drought-responsive genes in a drought tolerant faba bean variety (Hassawi 2) using a suppressive subtraction hybridization approach (SSH). A total of 913 differentially expressed clones were sequenced from a differential cDNA library that resulted in a total of 225 differentially expressed ESTs. The genes of mitochondrial and chloroplast origin were removed, and the remaining 137 EST sequences were submitted to the gene bank EST database (LIBEST_028448). A sequence analysis identified 35 potentially drought stress-related ESTs that regulate ion channels, kinases, and energy production and utilization and transcription factors. Quantitative PCR on Hassawi 2 genotype confirmed that more than 65% of selected drought-responsive genes were drought-related. Among these induced genes, the expression levels of eight highly up-regulated unigenes were further analyzed across 38 selected faba bean genotypes that differ in their drought tolerance levels. These unigenes included ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) gene, non-LTR retroelement reverse related, probable cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel, polyubiquitin, potassium channel, calcium-dependent protein kinase and putative respiratory burst oxidase-like protein C and a novel unigene. The expression patterns of these unigenes were variable across 38 genotypes however, it was found to be very high in tolerant genotype. The up-regulation of these unigenes in majority of tolerant genotypes suggests their possible role in drought tolerance. The identification of possible drought responsive candidate genes in . Vicia faba reported here is an important step toward the development of drought-tolerant genotypes that can cope with arid environments. © 2016.

Abo Youssef M.I.,Rice Research and Training Center | Dora S.A.,Kafr El Sheikh University | Deraz S.F.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute | Abo-Shosha A.A.M.,Kafr El Sheikh University | And 2 more authors.
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2011

Cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines often get contaminated with cognate isonuclear maintainer lines during multiplication. The fingerprinting of rice hybrids and their respective parental lines and testing genetic purity of rice hybrids using genetics markers are tested in the present study. To develop a reliable polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for distinguishing CMS and maintainer lines, a recommended primer pair called drrcms was used. PCR was performed with drrcms marker using the template DNA from a CMS line (IR 70368A), its cognate isonuclear maintainer line (IR 70368B), and the hybrid. This marker could unambiguously distinguish CMS (or the hybrid) from maintainer line. The PCR-based DNA marker drrcms described helps to detect contamination of maintainer and other male fertile lines in seed lots of WA-CMS lines. Up to our knowledge, this is the first study reported drrcms marker used to amplify distinct fragments in Egyptian CMS and their cognate isonuclear maintainer lines.

El-Namaky R.,Africa Rice Center | El-Namaky R.,Rice Research and Training Center | Sedeek S.,Africa Rice Center | Sedeek S.,Rice Research and Training Center | And 3 more authors.
Rice Science | Year: 2016

DNA markers enabled to determine the chromosomal locations of the two Rf genes (Rf3 and Rf4) in the wild-abortive cytoplasmic male sterility (WA-CMS) system. Four simple sequence repeats (SSRs) RM171, RM258, RM315 and RM443 were used to detect the allelic status with respect to the fertility restoration genes (Rf3 and Rf4) in 300 rice cultivars or breeding lines. The results revealed that out of 300 lines, 90 lines screened had Rf3, 65 lines had Rf4, and 45 lines had Rf3 and Rf4 alleles. Furthermore, 45 lines selected using SSR markers were mated with a CMS line (IR58025A) to analyze their restoring ability. Offspring of all the test lines except HHZ8-SAL9DT1-Y1, HHZ5-SAL9-Y3-1 and IDSA77 exhibited higher pollen and spikelet fertility (> 80%), thus confirming they bear the Rf alleles. The hybrid offspring of ARH12-6-1-1-B-3-1, IR32307-10-3-2-1 and Sahel 329 had the highest pollen fertility (97.39%, 98.30% and 97.10%, respectively) and spikelet fertility (95.10%, 97.07% and 96.10%, respectively). © 2016 China National Rice Research Institute.

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