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Ahmad Z.,Tottori University | Shah P.,Nwfp Agricultural University | El-Sharkawi H.,Rice Research and Training Center | Gama P.B.S.,Tottori University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2010

In the recent scenario of limiting water and land resources, new cultural techniques are being worked out to get maximum benefits from the available resources. Bed planting is one of these techniques which got renowned for water conservation, efficient fertilizer use and other benefits while flat planting is less expensive as well as easy to perform. In spite of this recognition, these new planting techniques could not fetch the attention of crop researchers for sugar beet cultivation. Therefore, the current experiment was designed to compare the conventional ridge planting method (ridges 50 cm apart) with new bed and flat planting techniques under different row geometries. The two sugar beet varieties, Kawe Terma and KWS 1451, were grown on ridges (40 cm, 50 cm and 60 cm apart, pair of ridges 50 cm apart and strip of three ridges 50 cm apart), beds (with two rows 80 cm apart and with three rows 120 cm apart) and flat (with two rows 50 cm apart and with three rows 50 cm apart). Results of the study showed that beet growth (mean leaf area, root diameter and root weight) and quality (sugar percentage, Brix percentage, purity percentage and sugar yield) was significantly affected by new planting methods. The mean root diameter of beets reached a maximum of 12.7 cm on beds with two rows. The mean root weight of beets increased on pair of ridges (1.54 kg) and on the recommended ridge planting method. Sugar and purity percentage of beets increased by 1.1% and 2.7%, respectively, on beds with two rows as compared to the beets planted on conventional ridge spacing. Sugar yield was equally higher on beds with two rows and the recommended ridge planting method. It was observed that the growth and quality of Kawe Terma was exceptionally better than the variety KWS 1451. Meaningfull comparisons were also performed among the different planting methods to evaluate the overall performance of ridge, bed and flat planting methods and results have been discussed. It can be inferred from the results that equally better growth and higher yields can be achieved by replacing the current ridge planting method with new two-rows-bed planting technique. Source

El-Nashar Y.I.,King Saud University | El-Nashar Y.I.,Horticultural Research Institute | Ammar M.H.,King Saud University | Ammar M.H.,Rice Research and Training Center
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2016

Six different colchicine concentrations: 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 ppm, in combination with four soaking time treatments (1, 2, 3, and 4 h), were selected to assess the effects on germination, vegetative growth, and flower yield components in calendula plants. The molecular diversity among the treatments was assessed using ten SRAP marker combinations. Seed soaking in colchicine significantly enhanced both the fresh and the dry shoot and root masses, flowering date, number of flowers per plant, and flower diameter. At 1200-ppm colchicine combined with a 4-h soaking time, a superior effect on seed germination was observed, whereas 800 ppm for 4 h produced the highest number of flowers and the largest flower diameter. The earliest flowering time was found at 800 ppm combined with a short soaking time (1 h), while the 4-h soaking time with 800 ppm, is recommended for growing calendula outdoors, since it enhances flower development. At the molecular level, 752 fragments were successfully amplified using the SRAP primers, with 280 genetic loci found throughout the calendula genome. The polymorphism percentage ranged from 79 to 100% and the polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged between 0.85 and 0.97. The high number of detected loci and PIC values suggests a great power of SRAP markers in detecting mutant molecular diversity. Our results clearly show the existence of genetic variation among colchicine treated calendula plants and the clustering of the studied mutants was concordant with the colchicine concentration used. © FUNPEC-RP. Source

El-Namaky R.,Africa Rice Center | El-Namaky R.,Rice Research and Training Center | Sedeek S.,Africa Rice Center | Sedeek S.,Rice Research and Training Center | And 3 more authors.
Rice Science | Year: 2016

DNA markers enabled to determine the chromosomal locations of the two Rf genes (Rf3 and Rf4) in the wild-abortive cytoplasmic male sterility (WA-CMS) system. Four simple sequence repeats (SSRs) RM171, RM258, RM315 and RM443 were used to detect the allelic status with respect to the fertility restoration genes (Rf3 and Rf4) in 300 rice cultivars or breeding lines. The results revealed that out of 300 lines, 90 lines screened had Rf3, 65 lines had Rf4, and 45 lines had Rf3 and Rf4 alleles. Furthermore, 45 lines selected using SSR markers were mated with a CMS line (IR58025A) to analyze their restoring ability. Offspring of all the test lines except HHZ8-SAL9DT1-Y1, HHZ5-SAL9-Y3-1 and IDSA77 exhibited higher pollen and spikelet fertility (> 80%), thus confirming they bear the Rf alleles. The hybrid offspring of ARH12-6-1-1-B-3-1, IR32307-10-3-2-1 and Sahel 329 had the highest pollen fertility (97.39%, 98.30% and 97.10%, respectively) and spikelet fertility (95.10%, 97.07% and 96.10%, respectively). © 2016 China National Rice Research Institute. Source

El-kazzaz M.K.,Kafr El Sheikh University | Salem E.A.,Rice Research and Training Center | Ghoneim K.E.,Kafr El Sheikh University | Elsharkawy M.M.,Kafr El Sheikh University | And 2 more authors.
International Medical Journal | Year: 2015

Rice is affected by quite a number of diseases that results in high yield losses. Among the fungal diseases, kernel smut is known to occur worldwide in many countries. Biological method of plant disease management seems to be an alternative to chemical fungicides in managing rice diseases. In this study, effects of some bioagents on Tilletia barclayana, the causal agent of rice kernel smut were investigated, under greenhouse conditions. The study focused on mechanism mediating suppression of T. barclayana by investigating the effect of different bioagents on the activities of defense related enzymes, i.e peroxidase (POX), polyphenoloxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). Among 15 fungal and bacterial isolates, Bacillus pumilus was found to be the most promising bioagent (BCA) for controlling the disease. Generally, the tested bioagents significantly increased the activities of defense related enzymes and total protein content compared with control treatment. Obtained data suggests use of efficient and environmentally safe bioagents to control rice kernel smut disease. Source

Ammar M.H.,King Saud University | Ammar M.H.,Rice Research and Training Center | Khan A.M.,King Saud University | Migdadi H.M.,King Saud University | And 3 more authors.
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

This study was carried out to identify drought-responsive genes in a drought tolerant faba bean variety (Hassawi 2) using a suppressive subtraction hybridization approach (SSH). A total of 913 differentially expressed clones were sequenced from a differential cDNA library that resulted in a total of 225 differentially expressed ESTs. The genes of mitochondrial and chloroplast origin were removed, and the remaining 137 EST sequences were submitted to the gene bank EST database (LIBEST_028448). A sequence analysis identified 35 potentially drought stress-related ESTs that regulate ion channels, kinases, and energy production and utilization and transcription factors. Quantitative PCR on Hassawi 2 genotype confirmed that more than 65% of selected drought-responsive genes were drought-related. Among these induced genes, the expression levels of eight highly up-regulated unigenes were further analyzed across 38 selected faba bean genotypes that differ in their drought tolerance levels. These unigenes included ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) gene, non-LTR retroelement reverse related, probable cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel, polyubiquitin, potassium channel, calcium-dependent protein kinase and putative respiratory burst oxidase-like protein C and a novel unigene. The expression patterns of these unigenes were variable across 38 genotypes however, it was found to be very high in tolerant genotype. The up-regulation of these unigenes in majority of tolerant genotypes suggests their possible role in drought tolerance. The identification of possible drought responsive candidate genes in . Vicia faba reported here is an important step toward the development of drought-tolerant genotypes that can cope with arid environments. © 2016. Source

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