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Rajendra Nagar, India

Atray I.,Plant Molecular Biology Group | Bentur J.S.,Rice Research | Nair S.,Plant Molecular Biology Group
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Diptera; Cecidomyiidae) was sequenced, annotated and analysed in the present study. The circular genome is 15,286 bp with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a 578 bp non-coding control region. All protein coding genes used conventional start codons and terminated with a complete stop codon. The genome presented many unusual features: (1) rearrangement in the order of tRNAs as well as protein coding genes; (2) truncation and unusual secondary structures of tRNAs; (3) presence of two different repeat elements in separate non-coding regions; (4) presence of one pseudo-tRNA gene; (5) inversion of the rRNA genes; (6) higher percentage of non-coding regions when compared with other insect mitogenomes. Rearrangements of the tRNAs and protein coding genes are explained on the basis of tandem duplication and random loss model and why intramitochondrial recombination is a better model for explaining rearrangements in the O. oryzae mitochondrial genome is discussed. Furthermore, we evaluated the number of iterations of the tandem repeat elements found in the mitogenome. This led to the identification of genetic markers capable of differentiating rice gall midge biotypes and the two Orseolia species investigated. © 2015 Atray et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Gangaiah B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Gangaiah B.,Rice Research | Ahlawat I.P.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2014

A field experiment was conducted during the rainy (kharif) and winter (rabi) seasons of 2006-07 and 2007-08 at New Delhi, to assess the performance of 3 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)-wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend. Fiori & Paol.] systems as affected by nitrogen (N) fertilization. In cotton, treatments formed by combination of 3 cotton hybrids [2 Bt (‘MRC 6304’ and ‘RCH 317’) and 1 non-Bt hybrid (‘LHH 144’)] in main plot and 4 levels of N fertilization (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg/ha) in sub-plots were tested. In succeeding wheat, cotton treatments were further sub-divided to accommodate 3 levels of N fertilization (0, 60, and 120 kg N/ha). Pooled data revealed that 2 Bt cotton hybrids being at par gave 55.4% (2.99 tonnes/ha) higher seed-cotton yield (SCY) than non Bt cotton hybrid (1.93 tonnes/ha) and the cotton hybrids did not markedly alter the performance of succeeding wheat. However, the system productivity (cotton-equivalent yield, CEY) of Bt cotton-wheat was 24.2% (4.72 tonnes/ha) higher than the non-Bt cotton-wheat system (3.80 tonnes/ha). The per cent contribution of Bt cotton to CEY of system (69.7) far exceeded that of non-Bt cotton (49.6). Both agronomic nitrogen-use efficiency (ANUE) and physiological nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE) of Bt cotton and ANUE of succeeding wheat were higher than the non-Bt cotton and following wheat. Yield, N uptake of cotton, wheat and system increased with each successive increase of 60 kg N dose from 0 to 180 kg/ha. The N response of cotton was found to be quadratic with optimum dose of 173.0 kg/ha. ANUE and PNUE of cotton were the highest with 60 (5.73) and 120 kg N fertilization (17.05) and decreased thereafter with increasing N dose. Wheat crop responded to direct application of N up to 120 kg/ha. The currently recommended N input (300 kg/ha) of the non-Bt cotton (180 kg/ha)-wheat (120 kg/ha) system can be reduced by 27.8 kg with adoption of ‘MRC 6304’ Bt cotton. © 2014, Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved. Source

Duraimurugan P.,Oilseeds Research | Sampathkumar M.,Rice Research | Srinivas P.S.,Oilseeds Research
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2015

Female calling behaviour and electrophysiological response of male to pheromone gland extracts of castor semilooper, Achaea janata L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. Adult emergence occurred only at scotophase period with maximum of 58% male and 53% female moths during 6th and 7th hour of scotophase. Females exhibited a characteristic calling posture by extruding the pheromone gland from the tip of the abdomen. Both female age and time in the scotophase significantly influenced calling. Calling initiated during second scotophase and maximum calling occurred during fourth scotophase (66.7%). Most of the female calling (41.8%) occurred during 9th hour of the scotophase. Extracts of female pheromone gland assayed in electroantennogram elicited hyper sensitive reaction in male moths with a response of -2.745 mV. The present study gives detailed information on the behavioural biology of A. janata and optimal time for the pheromone extraction, which could facilitate exploiting pheromone technology for the monitoring and mass trapping of this pest in castor. © 2015, World Food Ltd. and WFL Publishers. All rights reserved. Source

Lakshmi R.R.,Dr Ysr Horticultural University | Naidu L.N.,Dr Ysr Horticultural University | Prasad A.H.,Rice Research | Rao C.M.,Regional Agricultural Research Station | Purushotham K.,Dr Ysr Horticultural University
Plant Archives | Year: 2012

A study was conducted to characterize the eighty four brinjal germplasm lines collected from different parts of the country using IBPGR descriptors at Horticultural Research Station, Venkataramannagudem, India. The data was collected on different plant, leaf, flower and fruit characters. Variability was observed for all the twenty five characters studied in the eighty four genotypes. The descriptors are helpful in breeding for high yielding, multiple disease resistant cultivars and improving the fruit quality characteristics. Source

Mishra J.S.,Weed Science Research | Mishra J.S.,Sorghum Research | Singh V.P.,Weed Science Research | Bhanu C.,Weed Science Research | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

A field study was conducted to study the effect of methods of rice establishment, tillage and weed management techniques in rice-chickpea cropping system. Treatments included four crop establishment techniques (transplanting, puddling and broadcasting sprouted rice seeds, i.e wet-seeding and dry seeding under conventional and zero tillage systems) in rice and two tillage (zero and conventional) and two weed control methods (weedy check and pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha as pre-emergence + one hand weeding at 30 days after sowing) in succeeding chickpea. Rice field was infested with jungle rice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link], Caesulia (Caesulia axillaris Roxb.), sessile joyweed [Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC.], and rice flat sedge (Cyperus iria L.) and chickpea with wild oats (Avena ludoviciana Dur.) and toothed burclover (Medicago hispida Gaertn.). Results revealed that methods of rice establishment did influence the weed dynamics in rice- chickpea system. Mean yield of zero-till direct-seeded rice (3 262 kg/ha) was as good as that of puddle broadcast rice (3 343 kg/ha) and better than the transplanted rice (3 038 kg/ha). Effective weed control in preceding chickpea benefitted the succeeding rice crop. Methods of rice establishment and tillage did not influence the chickpea yield. Infestation of weeds caused 78.45% reduction in yield of chickpea. Maximum seed yield of chickpea (2 813 kg/ha) was noticed in pendimethalin followed by one HW under conventional tillage. Zero till direct-seeded rice followed by zero-till chickpea system was the best combination for maximizing system productivity, profitability and energy efficiency. Source

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