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Ramachandran K.,Rice and Industrial Crops Research Center | Manaf U.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Zakaria L.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2015

The Erwinia species are well-known pathogens of economic importance in Malaysia causing serious damage to high-value fruit crops that include pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L.).The 16S rRNA sequence using eubacteria fD1 and rP2 primers, identified two bacteria species; Dickeya zeae from pineapple heart rot, and Erwinia mallotivora from papaya dieback. Phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining method indicated that all the bacterial isolates clustered in their own taxa and formed monophyletic clades. From the pathogenicity test, all isolates of D. zeae and E. mallotivora showed pathogenic reactions on their respective host plants. Genetic variability of these isolates was assessed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting. The results indicated interspecies, and intraspecies variation in both species' isolates. There were more polymorphic bands shown by rep-PCR fingerprints than enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and BOX- PCRs, however both species' isolates produced distinguishable banding patterns. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis indicated that all Dickeya and Erwinia isolates from the same species were grouped in the same main cluster. Similarity among the isolates ranged from 77 to 99%. Sequencing of 16S rRNA using eubacteria fD1 and rP2 primers, and rep-PCR fingerprinting revealed diversity among Dickeya and Erwinia isolates. But this method appears to be reliable for discriminating isolates from pineapple heart rot and papaya dieback. © by Latiffah Zakaria 2015.

Wan Zaki W.M.,MARDI Kuala Kangsar Research Station | Omar T.,MARDI Hilir Perak Research Station | Mansor P.,Rice and Industrial Crops Research Center
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The multi-uses of nypa palm (Nypa fruticans) which includes: foods (attap chee, neera (the sweet sap), brown sugar, candy and aromatic tea); special uses (attaps from thatched leaflets); decorative household items (woven into mats, baskets, hats or handbags); cigarette wrappers (from the young unexpanded leaflet); and ethanol from neera as bio-fuel, should turn this palm into a special plant species with a great economic contribution. Nypa palm is considered a mangrove plant species and normally does not compete with other type of plants, as it grows mostly in clusters in areas that are unsuitable for most other plant types. Since the natural environment of this palm is quite challenging, strategic efforts must be made to successfully domesticate this palm. Apart from its multi-uses, the most critical requirement for this palm is the current lack of scientific basis behind the traditional practices in producing the neera. Thus research and development is very much in need for this palm in both upstream and downstream activities such as nursery management for production of quality nypa seedlings, optimum planting density, agronomic practices, the tapping technique, harvesting methods, storage, processing and product development. Effective technologies would ensure nypa palm could be turned into a source of economic growth for Malaysia.

Mazidah M.,University Putra Malaysia | Lau W.H.,University Putra Malaysia | Yusoff K.,Ministry of Science | Habibuddin H.,Rice and Industrial Crops Research Center | Tan Y.H.,University Putra Malaysia
Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science | Year: 2012

Catharanthus roseus var. rosea, infected with Malaysian isolate of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-MP), exhibited leaf mosaic, leaf deformation and malformed flowers. Electron microscopic examination of the infected leaf cells revealed significant alteration of the chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells. Large starch grains in necrotic zones and disorganized thylakoid system were the most prominent modifications observed within the chloroplasts of the infected tissues. Meanwhile, membrane-bound vesicles were detected in the vacuoles of the CMV-MP-infected leaf cells. A crystalline array of phytoferritin macromolecules was detected in the chloroplast at 40 days post-inoculation. However, neither single nor aggregate of CMV-MP particles was detected in the cytoplasm due to difficulties in differentiating them from the ribosomes. Nonetheless, structure resembling the inclusion bodies, commonly produced after virus infection, could not be found in the infected leaf cells. Similarly, structure abnormality in the nucleus or mitochondria was also not observed. © Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.

Mazidah M.,University Putra Malaysia | Yusoff K.,Ministry of Science | Habibuddin H.,Rice and Industrial Crops Research Center | Tan Y.H.,University Putra Malaysia | Lau W.H.,University Putra Malaysia
Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science | Year: 2012

A cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolate, causing leaf mosaic and distortion, malformed flowers or colour-breaking on the petals of Catharanthus roseus in Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, was identified and designated as Malaysian periwinkle isolate (CMV-MP). The virus was spherical in shape with the size of 28.6 ± 0.48 nm in diameter with a central core. It was mechanically transmitted to various test plants which produced typical symptoms of CMV infection. The coat protein (CP) gene of the virus was amplified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloned in Escherichia coli using TOPO-TA vector. A single open reading frame of 657 nucleotides, potentially encoding for 218 amino acids was sequenced. A comparison with the CP genes of other CMV isolates indicated that CMV-MP shared 100% sequence homology to the CP gene sequence of C. roseus isolate of CMV in India. This is the first aetiology report on C. roseus in Malaysia showing natural mosaic disease symptoms supported with the nucleotide sequence analysis of the causal virus. © Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.

Jamal K.,University Putra Malaysia | Kamarulzaman N.H.,University Putra Malaysia | Abdullah A.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Ismail M.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Hashim M.,Rice and Industrial Crops Research Center
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2013

Malaysia depends on imports for its fragrant rice, mostly from Thailand, Vietnam, India and Pakistan. The fragrant rice farming in non-granary areas has been included in the new Entry Point Project (EPP) under the National Key Economic Areas (NKEA). In order to realize the aspiration of producing fragrant rice in large areas, it would require full participation and commitment from the existing and new farmers. The objective of this paper is to investigate farmer's acceptance towards fragrant rice farming in two districts namely Pasir Mas and Tanah Merah, located in the state of Kelantan. The respondents of the study are 23 farmers and in-depth interviews are carried out to obtain farmers' responses towards fragrant rice farming. The results from the content analysis reveal innovation characteristics, extension services and market pressure are among several factors that explain farmers' acceptance towards fragrant rice farming.

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