Ricardo Palma University

Lima, Peru
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Durand L.C.A.,Cirujano Del Hospital Of Emergencias Jose Casimiro Ulloa | Durand L.C.A.,Ricardo Palma University
International Journal of Morphology | Year: 2016

Intrahepatic structure study in 200 human livers: The Portal, arterial and biliary branches form seven segmental pedicles before entering the corresponding parenchyma. The first four belong, generally to the left lobe and the number V, VI and VII to the right. In 80 % portal branch V is right and 20 % is left, so in 80 % the line dividing both hemi livers ranges from biliary cystic fossa to the left edge of the inferior cava vein; in 20 % said line running from a equidistant point between biliary cystic fossa right margin and the right anterior angle edge of the liver, describes a convex outer curve and reaches the right edge of the inferior cava vein. 70 % of the livers were supplied by the hepatic artery, in 30 % there were anastomosis with accessory hepatic arteries. We observed anastomosis between the left and right hepatic artery in 55 % of cases in the hilum plate and not in the thickness of the parenchyma. Segmental arteries while penetrating their segments, become terminal. Aberrant bile ducts are segmental bile, they have not come together to form the right hepatic duct, draining into the common hepatic or cystic. Biliary common duct segments VI and VII drains into the left hepatic duct in 21 % of cases, no more than 1 cm from the point of formation of the common hepatic. Besides in (left hepatic, intermediate and and right hepatic) upper venous system we observed veins in the caudate lobe in 100 % of cases, and right lower hepatic in 61 % of cases, these had a diameter between 5 and 20 mm, and 5 % with right middle hepatic. At 40 % there is a parenchymal bridge linking segments III and IV. In 25 % we appreciate accessory lobes arising from the underside of the liver. The aim of this study was to provide a simple classification of the hepatic segmentation from a surgical point of view. © 2016, Universidad de la Frontera. All rights reserved.

Castro Paz F.P.,Ricardo Palma University | Batista J.D.S.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Porto J.I.R.,National Institute of Amazonian Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

DNA barcoding can be an effective tool for fast and accurate species-level identification based on sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (COI) gene. The diversity of this fragment can be used to estimate the richness of the respective species. In this study, we explored the use of DNA barcoding in a group of ornamental freshwater fish of the genus Hyphessobrycon. We sequenced the COI from 10 species of Hyphessobrycon belonging to the "Rosy Tetra Clade" collected from the Amazon and Negro River basins and combined our results with published data. The average conspecific and congeneric Kimura 2-parameter distances were 2.3% and 19.3%, respectively. Six of the 10 species were easily distinguishable by DNA barcoding (H. bentosi, H. copelandi, H. eques, H. epicharis, H. pulchrippinis, and H. sweglesi), whereas the remaining species (H. erythrostigma, H. pyrrhonotus, H. rosaceus and H. socolofi) lacked reciprocal monophyly. Although the COI gene was not fully diagnostic, the discovery of distinct evolutionary units in certain Hyphessobrycon species under the same specific epithet as well as haplotype sharing between different species suggest that DNA barcoding is useful for species identification in this speciose genus. © 2014 Castro Paz et al.

Pfefferkorn H.W.,University of Pennsylvania | Alleman V.,Ricardo Palma University | Iannuzzi R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Gondwana Research | Year: 2014

The late Paleozoic ice age (LPIA) is the closest example that can be compared with current climate conditions. Near the beginning of the LPIA fossil plants of Mississippian (late Visean to earliest Serpukhovian) age indicate a widespread frost-free climate in a wide belt on Gondwana indicating an interval of greenhouse conditions between the earlier Visean and later Serpukhovian icehouse times. This warm-temperate floral belt has been named the Paraca floral belt after the locality on the Peruvian coast where it was first recognized. The origin of this particular zono-biome was due to the interplay of (1) climate oscillations, (2) several kinds of long-distance plant dispersal within, between or through zono-biomes, and (3) plate motion. The Carboniferous age strata on the Paracas Peninsula in Peru serve as an example for an analysis of these large scale patterns through the analysis of local geology, paleobotany, and paleoecology. The processes observed during this time interval can serve as a model for long-distance plant dispersal at other times. © 2013 International Association for Gondwana Research.

Mejia C.R.,University Continental | Cardenas M.M.,Ricardo Palma University | Gomero-Cuadra R.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Publica | Year: 2015

In order to determine trends in accidents and illnesses reported to the Ministry of Labor of Peru, a descriptive study of secondary data from the reports of monthly newsletters from September 2010 to December 2014 was performed. At the national level, 54,596 non-fatal accidents were reported. The rates of non-fatal accidents increased in 2011-2013 (296.5 in 2011, 955.9 in 2012 and 1176.3 in 2013), decreasing in 2014 (878.9). There were 674 fatal accidents whose rates increased between 2011 and 2012 and were reduced between 2013 and 2014. 346 occupational diseases were reported; the most frequent were cases of hearing loss (77), illness by inadequate postures (57) and allergic dermatitis (44). Reports declined from 6.9 in 2011 to 2.3 in 2014. Reports of occupational diseases were declining, which could indicate significant underreporting. © 2015, Instituto Nacional de Salud. All rights reserved.

Ogrzewalska M.,University of Sao Paulo | Literak I.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno | Cardenas-Callirgos J.M.,Ricardo Palma University | Capek M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Labruna M.B.,University of Sao Paulo
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases | Year: 2012

Amazonian birds were caught and examined for the presence of ectoparasites in the Allpahuayo Mishana National Reserve near Iquitos, Peru, from 13 to 16 August 2011. A total of 40 birds representing 16 species were examined. Two birds (5%) were infested with 2 larvae of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844, and one nymph of A. calcaratum Neumann, 1899. The 2 larvae of A. varium were infected with Rickettsia bellii. This is the first report of R. bellii in A. varium and also the first record of this rickettsia in Peru. In addition, an immature A. calcaratum is reported from Peru for the first time. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.

Moscol M.D.,University of San Martín de Porres | Sanchez C.B.,Ricardo Palma University
Annals of Hepatology | Year: 2011

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by changes in cognitive function, behavior, and personality, as well as by transient neurological symptoms and electroencephalographic changes, which occur in the context of acute or chronic liver failure. Cirrhosis is the main disease associated to HE, and it is known that its incidence is increasing worldwide. As a cause of mortality, cirrhosis is ranked 14 worldwide, but 10 in developed countries. It has been demonstrated that the incidence of liver disease is increasing, in part because of the ascending prevalence of NAFLD, HCV, HCC, as well of alcohol consumption. The real incidence of cirrhosis in Latin America is unknown, although in some Latin American countries that provided national data, cirrhosis death rates were between 5 and 17/100,000 for men and 3 and 5/100,000 for women. Disability, quality of life, and social aspects should be considered when assessing the impact of a disease. In this context, preliminary estimates of the global burden of disease attributable to chronic liver disease seem to be substantial. Hepatic encephalopathy, a main complication of liver failure, occurs in 30-45% of patients as overt encephalopathy, but when subclinical or minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is considered, estimates of the incidence of encephalopathy vary from 20 to 60%. In USA, the 2009 NIH Report on the Costs of Digestive Diseases stated that liver disease was the second most costly disease in direct and indirect costs (13.1 billion dollars). Although the economic cost of HE has not been assessed, it is obvious that the economic impact of HE on daily activities of living is extremely high, as the costs of diminished work performance and lost wages are substantial.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical diagnosis and treatment of pediatrics patients with hepatic hydatid disease hospitalized in the pediatric ward of HNHU in the last ten years. The study is a descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective observational of patients undergoing surgery for liver hydatidosis. We studied 42 confirmed cases of hepatic hydatidosis, the ages ranged from 1 to 17 years and most were adolescents 13 to 17 years (20 cases 47.62%), the gender distribution is equal and the source of patients is mainly from the Central Andes of Peru (24 cases 57.14%) followed by Lima city (10 cases 23.81%). The most common presenting symptom was abdåominal pain (29 cases 69.05%) followed by fever (19 cases 45.24%). Ultrasound is the most common diagnostic method and only not done in a patient carrying a prior CT scan. Serology (indirect immunofluorescence) was positive in only 19 of 27 patients who had the test (70%).Most were single hepatic cysts (22 cases 52.38%) with size from 3 to 20 cm but most commonly they were 5 to 10 cm sized. The location was predominant on the right lobe (26 cases 61.98%) followed on both lobes (10 cases 23.81%). Apart from the liver there were cysts on the lungs (18 cases 42.86%).The surgical procedure performed was radical cystectomy with or without drainage in 36 cases (85.71%). And conservative surgery in only 6 cases (14.28). The important complications were: 15 cases of fever (35.71), nosocomial respiratory infection in 9 cases (21.43%), biliary fistula in 5 cases (11.90%) and residual abscess in 3 cases (7.14%). Although morbidity was high, mortality of the cases studied was zero.

Chouteau M.,University of Montréal | Summers K.,East Carolina University | Morales V.,Ricardo Palma University | Angers B.,University of Montréal
Biology Letters | Year: 2011

Whether the evolution of similar aposematic signals in different unpalatable species (i.e. Müllerian mimicry) is because of phenotypic convergence or advergence continues to puzzle scientists. The poison dart frog Ranitomeya imitator provides a rare example in support of the hypothesis of advergence: This species was believed to mimic numerous distinct model species because of high phenotypic variability and low genetic divergence among populations. In this study, we test the evidence in support of advergence using a population genetic framework in two localities where R. imitator is sympatric with different model species, Ranitomeya ventrimaculata and Ranitomeya variabilis. Genetic analyses revealed incomplete sorting of mitochondrial haplotypes between the two model species. These two species are also less genetically differentiated than R. imitator populations on the basis of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA comparisons. The genetic similarity between the model species suggests that they have either diverged more recently than R. imitator populations or that they are still connected by gene flow and were misidentified as different species. An analysis of phenotypic variability indicates that the model species are as variable as R. imitator.These results do not support the hypothesis of advergence by R. imitator. Althoughwe cannot rule out phenotypic advergence in the evolution of Mü llerian mimicry, this study reopens the discussion regarding the direction of the evolution of mimicry in the R. imitator system. © 2011 The Royal Society.

Brown J.L.,East Carolina University | Brown J.L.,Duke University | Morales V.,Ricardo Palma University | Summers K.,East Carolina University
American Naturalist | Year: 2010

Linking specific ecological factors to the evolution of parental care pattern and mating system is a difficult task of key importance. We provide evidence from comparative analyses that an ecological factor (breeding pool size) is associated with the evolution of parental care across all frogs. We further show that the most intensive form of parental care (trophic egg feeding) evolved in concert with the use of small pools for tadpole deposition and that egg feeding was associated with the evolution of biparental care. Previous research on two Peruvian poison frogs (Ranitomeya imitator and Ranitomeya variabilis) revealed similar life histories, with the exception of breeding pool size. This key ecological difference led to divergence in parental care patterns and mating systems. We present ecological field experiments that demonstrate that biparental care is essential to tadpole survival in small (but not large) pools. Field observations demonstrate social monogamy in R. imitator, the species that uses small pools. Molecular analyses demonstrate genetic monogamy in R. imitator, the first example of genetic monogamy in an amphibian. In total, this evidence constitutes the most complete documentation to date that a single ecological factor drove the evolution of biparental care and genetic and social monogamy in an animal. © 2010 by The University of Chicago.

Marzal A.,University of Extremadura | Garcia-Longoria L.,University of Extremadura | Cardenas Callirgos J.M.,Ricardo Palma University | Sehgal R.N.M.,San Francisco State University
Biological Invasions | Year: 2014

Some species of avian malaria parasites are invaders and responsible for diversity losses worldwide. Here we analyze the prevalence and genetic characterization of avian malaria and related haemosporidian parasites in Neotropical birds from two different regions of Peru. We detected an overall prevalence of 32.4 % comprising 12 infected bird species. The pathogen Plasmodium relictum SGS1 was widespread and the most prevalent parasite found in our study (39 % of the total infections), infecting 8 host species in both localities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this invasive pathogen in the mainland Americas, thus representing a possible menace to over one-third of all bird species in the world. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

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