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The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical diagnosis and treatment of pediatrics patients with hepatic hydatid disease hospitalized in the pediatric ward of HNHU in the last ten years. The study is a descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective observational of patients undergoing surgery for liver hydatidosis. We studied 42 confirmed cases of hepatic hydatidosis, the ages ranged from 1 to 17 years and most were adolescents 13 to 17 years (20 cases 47.62%), the gender distribution is equal and the source of patients is mainly from the Central Andes of Peru (24 cases 57.14%) followed by Lima city (10 cases 23.81%). The most common presenting symptom was abdåominal pain (29 cases 69.05%) followed by fever (19 cases 45.24%). Ultrasound is the most common diagnostic method and only not done in a patient carrying a prior CT scan. Serology (indirect immunofluorescence) was positive in only 19 of 27 patients who had the test (70%).Most were single hepatic cysts (22 cases 52.38%) with size from 3 to 20 cm but most commonly they were 5 to 10 cm sized. The location was predominant on the right lobe (26 cases 61.98%) followed on both lobes (10 cases 23.81%). Apart from the liver there were cysts on the lungs (18 cases 42.86%).The surgical procedure performed was radical cystectomy with or without drainage in 36 cases (85.71%). And conservative surgery in only 6 cases (14.28). The important complications were: 15 cases of fever (35.71), nosocomial respiratory infection in 9 cases (21.43%), biliary fistula in 5 cases (11.90%) and residual abscess in 3 cases (7.14%). Although morbidity was high, mortality of the cases studied was zero. Source

Brown J.L.,East Carolina University | Brown J.L.,Duke University | Morales V.,Ricardo Palma University | Summers K.,East Carolina University
American Naturalist

Linking specific ecological factors to the evolution of parental care pattern and mating system is a difficult task of key importance. We provide evidence from comparative analyses that an ecological factor (breeding pool size) is associated with the evolution of parental care across all frogs. We further show that the most intensive form of parental care (trophic egg feeding) evolved in concert with the use of small pools for tadpole deposition and that egg feeding was associated with the evolution of biparental care. Previous research on two Peruvian poison frogs (Ranitomeya imitator and Ranitomeya variabilis) revealed similar life histories, with the exception of breeding pool size. This key ecological difference led to divergence in parental care patterns and mating systems. We present ecological field experiments that demonstrate that biparental care is essential to tadpole survival in small (but not large) pools. Field observations demonstrate social monogamy in R. imitator, the species that uses small pools. Molecular analyses demonstrate genetic monogamy in R. imitator, the first example of genetic monogamy in an amphibian. In total, this evidence constitutes the most complete documentation to date that a single ecological factor drove the evolution of biparental care and genetic and social monogamy in an animal. © 2010 by The University of Chicago. Source

Chouteau M.,University of Montreal | Summers K.,East Carolina University | Morales V.,Ricardo Palma University | Angers B.,University of Montreal
Biology Letters

Whether the evolution of similar aposematic signals in different unpalatable species (i.e. Müllerian mimicry) is because of phenotypic convergence or advergence continues to puzzle scientists. The poison dart frog Ranitomeya imitator provides a rare example in support of the hypothesis of advergence: This species was believed to mimic numerous distinct model species because of high phenotypic variability and low genetic divergence among populations. In this study, we test the evidence in support of advergence using a population genetic framework in two localities where R. imitator is sympatric with different model species, Ranitomeya ventrimaculata and Ranitomeya variabilis. Genetic analyses revealed incomplete sorting of mitochondrial haplotypes between the two model species. These two species are also less genetically differentiated than R. imitator populations on the basis of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA comparisons. The genetic similarity between the model species suggests that they have either diverged more recently than R. imitator populations or that they are still connected by gene flow and were misidentified as different species. An analysis of phenotypic variability indicates that the model species are as variable as R. imitator.These results do not support the hypothesis of advergence by R. imitator. Althoughwe cannot rule out phenotypic advergence in the evolution of Mü llerian mimicry, this study reopens the discussion regarding the direction of the evolution of mimicry in the R. imitator system. © 2011 The Royal Society. Source

Moscol M.D.,University of San Martin de Porres | Sanchez C.B.,Ricardo Palma University
Annals of Hepatology

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by changes in cognitive function, behavior, and personality, as well as by transient neurological symptoms and electroencephalographic changes, which occur in the context of acute or chronic liver failure. Cirrhosis is the main disease associated to HE, and it is known that its incidence is increasing worldwide. As a cause of mortality, cirrhosis is ranked 14 worldwide, but 10 in developed countries. It has been demonstrated that the incidence of liver disease is increasing, in part because of the ascending prevalence of NAFLD, HCV, HCC, as well of alcohol consumption. The real incidence of cirrhosis in Latin America is unknown, although in some Latin American countries that provided national data, cirrhosis death rates were between 5 and 17/100,000 for men and 3 and 5/100,000 for women. Disability, quality of life, and social aspects should be considered when assessing the impact of a disease. In this context, preliminary estimates of the global burden of disease attributable to chronic liver disease seem to be substantial. Hepatic encephalopathy, a main complication of liver failure, occurs in 30-45% of patients as overt encephalopathy, but when subclinical or minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is considered, estimates of the incidence of encephalopathy vary from 20 to 60%. In USA, the 2009 NIH Report on the Costs of Digestive Diseases stated that liver disease was the second most costly disease in direct and indirect costs (13.1 billion dollars). Although the economic cost of HE has not been assessed, it is obvious that the economic impact of HE on daily activities of living is extremely high, as the costs of diminished work performance and lost wages are substantial. Source

Marzal A.,University of Extremadura | Garcia-Longoria L.,University of Extremadura | Cardenas Callirgos J.M.,Ricardo Palma University | Sehgal R.N.M.,San Francisco State University
Biological Invasions

Some species of avian malaria parasites are invaders and responsible for diversity losses worldwide. Here we analyze the prevalence and genetic characterization of avian malaria and related haemosporidian parasites in Neotropical birds from two different regions of Peru. We detected an overall prevalence of 32.4 % comprising 12 infected bird species. The pathogen Plasmodium relictum SGS1 was widespread and the most prevalent parasite found in our study (39 % of the total infections), infecting 8 host species in both localities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this invasive pathogen in the mainland Americas, thus representing a possible menace to over one-third of all bird species in the world. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

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