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Krylov V.B.,RAS N. D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry | Grachev A.A.,RAS N. D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ustyuzhanina N.E.,RAS N. D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ushakova N.A.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | And 9 more authors.
Russian Chemical Bulletin

Chondroitin sulfates isolated from cartilage of five marine fish species: Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus), blackmouth catshark (Galeus melastomus), birdbeak dogfish (Deania calcea), and Arctic skate (Amblyraja hyperborea), were characterized in detail by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The complete signal assignments for carbohydrates were made and the relative contents of the key structural units were estimated by 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy (COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC). The average length of the polysaccharide chain was evaluated from the integrated intensity ratio of the terminal and internal monosaccharide residues. The anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant activities of the specimens were studied. Chondroitin sulfates from salmon and Arctic skate exhibit considerable anti-inflammatory activity. All specimens manifest weak anticoagulant activity. The results of the present study indicate that chondroitin sulfates deserve more detailed investigation as potential anti-inflammatory agents. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Schadow S.,University of Marburg | Siebert H.-C.,RI B NT Research Institute of Bioinformatics and Nanotechnology | Lochnit G.,Justus Liebig University | Kordelle J.,Agaplesion Evangelical Hospital Mittelhessen | And 2 more authors.

Destruction of articular cartilage is a characteristic feature of osteoarthritis (OA). Collagen hydrolysates are mixtures of collagen peptides and have gained huge public attention as nutriceuticals used for prophylaxis of OA. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether different bovine collagen hydrolysate preparations indeed modulate the metabolism of collagen and proteoglycans from human OA cartilage explants and determined the chemical composition of oligopeptides representing collagen fragments. Using biophysical techniques, like MALDI-TOF-MS, AFM, and NMR, the molecular weight distribution and aggregation behavior of collagen hydrolysates from bovine origin (CH-Alpha®, Peptan™ B 5000, Peptan™ B 2000) were determined. To investigate the metabolism of human femoral OA cartilage, explants were obtained during knee replacement surgery. Collagen synthesis of explants as modulated by 0-10 mg/ml collagen hydrolysates was determined using a novel dual radiolabeling procedure. Proteoglycans, NO, PGE2, MMP-1, -3, -13, TIMP-1, collagen type II, and cell viability were determined in explant cultures. Groups of data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Friedman test (n = 5-12). The significance was set to p≤0.05. We found that collagen hydrolysates obtained from different sources varied with respect to the width of molecular weight distribution, average molecular weight, and aggregation behavior. None of the collagen hydrolysates tested stimulated the biosynthesis of collagen. Peptan™ B 5000 elevated NO and PGE2 levels significantly but had no effect on collagen or proteoglycan loss. All collagen hydrolysates tested proved not to be cytotoxic. Together, our data demonstrate for the first time that various collagen hydrolysates differ with respect to their chemical composition of collagen fragments as well as by their pharmacological efficacy on human chondrocytes. Our study underscores the importance that each collagen hydrolysate preparation should first demonstrate its pharmacological potential both in vitro and in vivo before being used for both regenerative medicine and prophylaxis of OA. © 2013 Schadow et al. Source

Stotzel S.,Justus Liebig University | Schurink M.,University Utrecht | Wienk H.,University Utrecht | Siebler U.,RI B NT Research Institute of Bioinformatics and Nanotechnology | And 10 more authors.

Heterogeneous mixtures of collagen fragments can be used as nutrition supplement or as key ingredients for ointments with therapeutic relevance in wound healing. Some mixtures of collagen fragments are referred to as collagen hydrolysates owing to the production process with hydrolytic enzymes. Since the precise composition of collagen hydrolysates is generally unknown, it is of interest to analyze samples containing various collagen fragments with appropriate biophysical methods. Any product optimization without a profound knowledge concerning the size and the molecular weight distribution of its components is nearly impossible. It turned out that a combination of AFM methods with NMR techniques is exceptionally suited to examine the size range and the aggregation behavior of the collagen fragments in the hydrolysates of fish, jellyfish, chicken, porcine and bovine collagen. Supported by molecular modeling calculations, the AFM and NMR experiments provide a detailed knowledge about the composition of collagen hydrolysates and collagen ointments. Furthermore, the data allow a correlation between the size of the fragments and their potential bioactivity. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Kosinska M.K.,Justus Liebig University | Ludwig T.E.,University of Calgary | Liebisch G.,University of Regensburg | Zhang R.,RI B NT Research Institute of Bioinformatics and Nanotechnology | And 11 more authors.

Background: Hyaluronic acid (HA), lubricin, and phospholipid species (PLs) contribute independently or together to the boundary lubrication of articular joints that is provided by synovial fluid (SF). Our study is the first reporting quantitative data about the molecular weight (MW) forms of HA, lubricin, and PLs in SF from cohorts of healthy donors, patients with early (eOA)- or late (lOA)-stage osteoarthritis (OA), and patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: We used human SF from unaffected controls, eOA, lOA, and RA. HA and lubricin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PLs was quantified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Fatty acids (FAs) were analyzed by gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry. The MW distribution of HA was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: Compared with control SF, the concentrations of HA and lubricin were lower in OA and RA SF, whereas those of PLs were higher in OA and RA SF. Moreover, the MW distribution of HA shifted toward the lower ranges in OA and RA SF. We noted distinct alterations between cohorts in the relative distribution of PLs and the degree of FA saturation and chain lengths of FAs. Conclusions: The levels, composition, and MW distribution of all currently known lubricants in SF - HA, lubricin, PLs - vary with joint disease and stage of OA. Our study is the first delivering a comprehensive view about all joint lubricants during health and widespread joint diseases. Thus, we provide the framework to develop new optimal compounded lubricants to reduce joint destruction. © 2015 Kosinska et al. Source

Kar R.K.,Bose Institute of India | Gazova Z.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Gazova Z.,University of P.J. Safarik | Bednarikova Z.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | And 9 more authors.

Degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and prion diseases, as well as type II diabetes, have a pathogenesis associated with protein misfolding, which routes with amyloid formation. Recent strategies for designing small-molecule and polypeptide antiamyloid inhibitors are mainly based on mature fibril structures containing cross β-sheet structures. In the present study, we have tackled the hypothesis that the rational design of antiamyloid agents that can target native proteins might offer advantageous prospect to design effective therapeutics. Lysozyme amyloid fibrillization was treated with three different peptide fragments derived from lysozyme protein sequence R107-R115. Using low-resolution spectroscopic, high-resolution NMR, and STD NMR-restrained docking methods such as HADDOCK, we have found that these peptide fragments have the capability to affect lysozyme fibril formation. The present study implicates the prospect that these peptides can also be tested against other amyloid-prone proteins to develop novel therapeutic agents. © 2016 American Chemical Society. Source

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