Chapel Hill, NC, United States
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Telen M.J.,Duke University | Wun T.,University of California at Davis | McCavit T.L.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | De Castro L.M.,University of Pittsburgh | And 6 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2015

Treatment of vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) or events in sickle cell disease (SCD) remains limited to symptom relief with opioids. Animal models support the effectiveness of the pan-selectin inhibitor GMI-1070 in reducing selectin-mediated cell adhesion and abrogating VOC. We studied GMI-1070 in a prospective multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 study of 76 SCD patients with VOC. Study drug (GMI-1070 or placebo) was given every 12 hours for up to 15 doses. Other treatment was per institutional standard of care. All subjects reached the composite primary end point of resolution of VOC. Although time to reach the composite primary end point was not statistically different between the groups, clinically meaningful reductions in mean and median times to VOC resolution of 41 and 63 hours (28% and 48%, P = .19 for both) were observed in the active treatment group vs the placebo group. As a secondary end point, GMI-1070 appeared safe in acute vaso-occlusion, and adverse events were not different in the two arms. Also in secondary analyses, mean cumulative IV opioid analgesic use was reduced by 83% with GMI-1070 vs placebo (P = .010). These results support a phase 3 study of GMI-1070 (now rivipansel) for SCD VOC. This trial was registered at as #NCT01119833.

McGowan E.C.,Johns Hopkins University | Bloomberg G.R.,University of Washington | Gergen P.J.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Visness C.M.,Rho Inc | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015

Objective Previous data suggest that food allergy (FA) might be more common in inner-city children; however, these studies have not collected data on both sensitization and clinical reactivity or early-life exposures.Methods Children in the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma birth cohort were followed through age 5 years. Household exposures, diet, clinical history, and physical examinations were assessed yearly; levels of specific IgE to milk, egg, and peanut were measured at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years of age. On the basis of sensitization (IgE ≥0.35 kU/L) and clinical history over the 5-year period, children were classified as having FA or being possibly allergic, sensitized but tolerant, or not allergic/not sensitized.Results Five hundred sixteen children were included. Overall, 55.4% were sensitized (milk, 46.7%; egg, 31.0%; and peanut, 20.9%), whereas 9.9% were categorized as having FA (peanut, 6.0%; egg, 4.3%; and milk, 2.7%; 2.5% to >1 food). The remaining children were categorized as possibly allergic (17.0%), sensitized but tolerant (28.5%), and not sensitized (44.6%). Eighteen (3.5%) reported reactions to foods for which IgE levels were not measured. Food-specific IgE levels were similar in children with FA versus sensitized but tolerant children, except for egg, levels of which were higher in patients with FA at ages 1 and 2 years. FA was associated with recurrent wheeze, eczema, aeroallergen sensitization, male sex, breast-feeding, and lower endotoxin exposure in year 1 but not with race/ethnicity, income, tobacco exposure, maternal stress, or early introduction of solid foods.Conclusions Even given that this was designed to be a high-risk cohort, the cumulative incidence of FA is extremely high, especially considering the strict definition of FA that was applied and that only 3 common allergens were included. © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

St.Clair E.W.,Duke University | Levesque M.C.,University of Pittsburgh | Prak E.T.L.,University of Pennsylvania | Vivino F.B.,University of Pennsylvania | And 6 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2013

Objective To study the safety and clinical efficacy of rituximab therapy for primary Sjögren's syndrome, as well as to investigate its mechanisms. Methods Patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome were enrolled in an open-label trial, were given rituximab (1 gm) infusions on days 1 and 15, and were monitored through week 52. The primary end point was safety, with secondary end points evaluating clinical and biologic efficacy. Blood was obtained for enumeration of lymphocyte subsets, measurement of serum autoantibody and BAFF levels, and analysis of gene expression. Results Twelve female patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome were administered rituximab. They had a median age of 51 years (range 34-69 years) and a median disease duration of 8.0 years (range 2-18 years). We observed no unexpected toxicities from the rituximab therapy. Modest improvements were observed at week 26 in patient-reported symptoms of fatigue and oral dryness, with no significant improvement in the objective measures of lacrimal and salivary gland function. The recovery of blood B cells following the nadir from rituximab therapy was characterized by a predominance of transitional B cells and a lack of memory B cells. While blood B cell depletion was associated with an increase in serum BAFF levels, no significant changes were observed in the levels of serum anti-Ro/SSA, anti-La/SSB, and anti-type 3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies or in the blood interferon signature. Conclusion In patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome, a single treatment course of rituximab was not associated with any unexpected toxicities and led to only modest clinical benefits despite effective depletion of blood B cells. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

Salo P.M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Calatroni A.,Rho Inc | Gergen P.J.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Hoppin J.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011

Background: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 was the first population-based study to investigate levels of serum total and allergen-specific IgE in the general US population. Objective: We estimated the prevalence of allergy-related outcomes and examined relationships between serum IgE levels and these outcomes in a representative sample of the US population. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from NHANES 2005-2006. Study subjects aged 6 years and older (n = 8086) had blood taken for measurement of total IgE and 19 specific IgE levels against common aeroallergens, including Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bermuda grass, birch, oak, ragweed, Russian thistle, rye grass, cat dander, cockroach, dog dander, dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), mouse and rat urine proteins, and selected foods (egg white, cow's milk, peanut, and shrimp). Serum samples were analyzed for total and allergen-specific IgE by using the Pharmacia CAP System. Information on allergy-related outcomes and demographics was collected by questionnaire. Results: In NHANES 2005-2006, 6.6% reported current hay fever, and 23.5% had current allergies. Allergy-related outcomes increased with increasing total IgE levels (adjusted odds ratios for a 10-fold increase in total IgE level of 1.86 [95% CI, 1.44-2.41] for hay fever and 1.64 [95% CI, 1.41-1.91] for allergies). Increased levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgE contributed independently to allergy-related symptoms. The greatest increase in odds was observed for hay fever and plant-specific IgE (adjusted odds ratio, 4.75; 95% CI, 3.83-5.88). Conclusion: In the US population self-reported allergy symptoms are most consistently associated with increased levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgE. © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Szefler S.J.,National Jewish Health | Gergen P.J.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Mitchell H.,Rho Inc | Morgan W.,University of Arizona
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

For children living in inner cities, asthma tends to be more frequent and severe. To characterize, understand, and treat children with asthma living in the inner city more effectively, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases established an Inner-City Asthma Program in 1991. In addition, the revised National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Expert Panel 3 report was introduced with new concepts for asthma management that are now centered on asthma control. The purpose of this review is to highlight features of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Inner-City Asthma Consortium Asthma Control Evaluation study that enhance our knowledge regarding the application of the asthma guidelines and to provide a summary of lessons learned from that important study. We recognized that asthma symptoms and exacerbations are theoretically linked to underlying inflammation of airways but are not direct indicators of inflammation. Based on the observations from the Asthma Control Evaluation study, we were impressed that a systematic guidelines-based approach improved asthma control significantly over the course of the 1-year treatment period.

Thornburg C.D.,Duke University | Calatroni A.,Rho Inc | Panepinto J.A.,Medical College of Wisconsin
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology | Year: 2011

Hydroxyurea is a safe and efficacious medication for children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our objective was to compare health-related quality of life (HRQL) between children taking hydroxyurea and those not taking hydroxyurea. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children with SCD who had completed the PedsQL 4.0 at Duke University Medical Center or the Midwest Sickle Cell Center. Our primary outcome was HRQL in children receiving hydroxyurea therapy compared with those not receiving hydroxyurea. One hundred and ninety-one children with SCD were included in the study. Children in the hydroxyurea group had higher self-reported Total PedsQL median scores than children in the no hydroxyurea group (P=0.04). Child self-reported physical functioning scores were significantly higher for children in the hydroxyurea group (P=0.01). In conclusion, children with SCD who received hydroxyurea therapy reported better overall HRQL and better physical HRQL than children who did not receive this therapy despite disease severity. Further research assessing the impact of hydroxyurea therapy on HRQL, such as prospective assessment over time, would aid in our understanding of the effectiveness of hydroxyurea for individual children. Ultimately, this may aid in decreasing the barriers to the use of hydroxyurea. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Astermark J.,Skåne University Hospital | Donfield S.M.,Rho Inc | Gomperts E.D.,Saban Research Institute | Schwarz J.,Rho Inc | And 9 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2013

Studies of determinants of development of inhibitory Abs to factor VIII in people with hemophilia A indicate a complex process involving multiple factors. The Hemophilia Inhibitor Genetics Study (HIGS) Combined Cohort was formed to extend our understanding of the genetic background of risk. The study group contains 833 subjects from 3 independent cohorts: brother pairs and singletons with and without a history of inhibitors, as well as 104 brother pairs discordant for inhibitor status. Using an Illumina iSelect platform, 13 331 single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 1081 genes, primarily immune response and immune modifier genes, were typed. Each cohort was analyzed separately with results combined using a meta-analytic technique. After adjustment for potential confounders, 53 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found to be significant predictors of inhibitor status using the criteria of odds ratios in the same direction in all cohorts or allowing for a 20% interval around an odds ratio - 1 in 1 of the 3 and significant in at least 2. Of the 53 markers, 13 had meta P < .001. Eight of the 53 were significant predictors among the discordant pairs. Results support the complexity of the immune response and encourage further research with the goal of understanding the pathways involved. (Blood.

Arbes Jr. S.J.,Rho Inc. | Matsui E.C.,Johns Hopkins University
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011

The hygiene hypothesis contends that fewer opportunities for infections and microbial exposures have resulted in more widespread asthma and atopic disease. Consistent with that hypothesis, decreases in infectious oral diseases over the past half century have coincided with increases in the prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases. This observation has led some researchers to speculate that exposures to oral bacteria, including pathogens associated with periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, might play a protective role in the development of asthma and allergy. Colonization of the oral cavity with bacteria, including some species of periodontal pathogens, begins shortly after birth, and the detection of serum antibodies to oral pathogens in early childhood provides evidence of an early immune response to these bacteria. Current knowledge of the immune response to oral bacteria and the immunologic pathogenesis of periodontal diseases suggests biologically plausible mechanisms by which oral pathogens could influence the risk of allergic disease. However, studies investigating the association between oral pathogen exposures and allergic disease are few in number and limited by cross-sectional or case-control design, exclusion of young children, and use of surrogate measures of oral bacterial colonization. Additional studies, particularly well-designed case-control studies among very young children and prospective birth cohort studies, are needed. © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Ware R.E.,Baylor College of Medicine | Helms R.W.,Rho Inc.
Blood | Year: 2012

Stroke is a devastating complication of sickle cell anemia (SCA) with high recurrence if untreated. Chronic transfusions reduce recurrent strokes but have associated morbidities including iron overload. Stroke With Transfusions Changing to Hydroxyurea (SWiTCH) was a multicenter phase 3 randomized trial comparing standard treatment (transfusions/chelation) to alternative treatment (hydroxyurea/phlebotomy) for children with SCA, stroke, and iron overload. SWiTCH was a noninferiority trial with a composite primary end point, allowing an increased stroke risk but requiring superiority for removing iron. Subjects on standard treatment received monthly transfusions plus daily deferasirox iron chelation. Subjects on alternative treatment received hydroxyurea plus overlap transfusions during dose escalation to maximum tolerated dose (MTD), followed by monthly phlebotomy. Subjects on standard treatment (N = 66) maintained 30% sickle hemoglobin (HbS) and tolerated deferasirox at 28.2 ± 6.0 mg/kg/d. Subjects on alternative treatment (N = 67) initiated hydroxyurea and 60 (90%) reached MTD at 26.2 ± 4.9 mg/kg/d with 29.1% ± 6.7% fetal hemoglobin (HbF). Adjudication documented no strokes on transfusions/chelation but 7 (10%) on hydroxyurea/ phlebotomy, still within the noninferiority stroke margin. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute closed SWiTCH after interim analysis revealed equivalent liver iron content, indicating futility for the composite primary end point. Transfusions and chelation remain a better way to manage children with SCA, stroke, and iron overload. This clinical trial was registered at NCT00122980. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.


Rho Inc. | Date: 2013-02-05

computer software, specifically software for use in connection with the acquisition, tracking, retrieval, validation, summarization, and statistical analysis and presentation of data used in the areas of medical research and product regulatory approval, environmental health, health care, and in relation to the design, research, development, and testing of new medical products and devices. computerized database management services for others in the areas of medical research, pharmaceutical, research and product regulatory approval, environmental health, and health care; computerized database management services for others in relation to the design, research, development, and testing of new medial products and devices; business services, namely recruiting and enrolling clinical drug trial participants for others. consulting services, namely providing technical consultation in the areas of medial research, pharmaceutical research and product regulatory approval, environmental health, and health care; providing technical consultation and research services in relation to the design, research, development, and testing of new medial products and devices, consulting services, namely collecting, analyzing, and reporting clinical trial data.

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