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East Missoula, MT, United States

Winter D.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Winter D.,Rhithron Associates Inc. | Sjunneskog C.,Florida State University | Harwood D.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Stratigraphy | Year: 2010

An extended lower to mid-Pliocene stratigraphic record of near-shore environmental variation in the southwestern Ross Sea, Antarctica is preserved in ANDRILL's McMurdo Ice Shelf Project AND-1B drillcore. A 94 meter-thick sequence of three diatomite and diatomaceous mudstone intervals represents the highest latitude record (78° S) of persistent open-marine conditions on the Antarctic continental shelf, in response to a protracted period of Pliocene warmth. This core provides new chronostratigraphic control for Antarctic paleoclimatic events, and describes a sequence of distinct diatom assemblages comprised of both extant and extinct species that are unknown on the Antarctic shelf today. Common taxa include those with modern distributions close to the Polar Frontal Zone (e.g. Shionodiscus tetraoestrupii, Stellarima stellaris, Thalassionema nitzschioides), suggesting marine temperatures in the southwestern Ross Sea warmer than at present. Representatives of the modern sea-ice assemblage (e.g. Fragilariopsis curta, Stellarima microtrias) and cold open-marine species associated with the retreating sea-ice front (e.g. Eucampia antarctica var. recta) are also present, but in much lower abundance than in the Ross Sea today as suggested by core top and surface sample data. The co-occurrence of species from these three distinct modern environments in Pliocene sediments, in close proximity to the continent, suggests that modern ecological zonal concepts cannot be applied directly in Pliocene paleoenvironmental analyses. Species present in the 4 m-thick lowest diatomite unit (~4.5 Ma) indicate a cold open marine environment, with the period of deposition likely comprising the length of one interglacial period. The middle diatomite unit (~4.1-4.3 Ma; 14m) records warmer and perhaps seasonally mixed conditions with often abundant Thalassionema nitzschioides and Shionodiscus tetraoestrupii and little evidence of sea-ice associated species. Documentation of changes in diatom assemblages through the upper 75m-thick diatomite interval (~3.3-3.6 Ma) offers the opportunity to resolve environmental limits of Pliocene diatom species that will serve as a guide to diatom-based paleoenvironmental interpretations for other Pliocene deposits. This upper unit records deposition during several glacial/interglacial cycles indicating an extended interval with open marine productivity during the mid-Pliocene. In addition, environmental associations for extinct species are inferred by their co-occurrence with extant taxa. Persistent intervals of pure diatomite suggest high productivity in an open-marine setting and minimal to no influence of sea ice. Commonly occurring species can be placed in five ecological categories; Neritic/Stratified, Warm, Cold/Sea Ice, Heavy/Wind Mixed and Mixed. Comparison of this long diatom-bearing interval with coeval Antarctic deposits presents a regional and continental picture of Pliocene warmth, suggesting East Antarctic Ice Sheet was smaller with sub-polar marginal conditions. Source

Shackleton M.E.,La Trobe University | Webb J.M.,Rhithron Associates Inc.
Zootaxa | Year: 2015

The caddisfly genus Caenota Mosely 1953 (in Mosely & Kimmins 1953) currently contains 5 species known from eastern Australia. Caenota is distinguished from other Calocidae genera by having adult males with greatly expanded maxillary palpi and a large membranous process associated with the antennal scape. Of the 5 described species, the larvae of only 1 is known. Here, we describe 2 new species, Caenota cudonis sp. nov. and C. equustagna sp. nov., from adult, larval, and pupal material. Also, we describe for the first time the larva of C. nemorosa Neboiss. These descriptions increase the number of Caenota species to 7 and the number of associated and described larvae to 4. This paper also provides descriptions of features associated with the adult head capsule of all described species of Caenota. Each of the known species is considered, with illustrations and re-descriptions of these features given. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press. Source

Winter D.,Rhithron Associates Inc. | Bahls L.,The Montana Diatom Collection
Phytotaxa | Year: 2013

A new species of Encyonema is described from the benthos of small mountain streams and rivers in western Montana and northern Wyoming. Previously this species had been identified incorrectly as E. hebridicum Grunow ex Cleve and Cymbella affinis Kützing or assigned the provisional name Encyonema sp. 1 MONTANA HAMSHER ANSP. Here we formally recognize this taxon as a new species, Encyonema hamsherae. © 2013 Magnolia Press. Source

Labiobaetis sonajuventus n.sp. is described from nymphs collected in a tributary of the Okanogan River in north-central Washington, USA. The new species is distinguished from North American congeners by the well-developed keel between the bases of the antennae, the concave lateral margin of labial palp segment 2, the apically expanded submarginal setae on the labrum, and its western Nearctic distribution. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press. Source

Winter D.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Winter D.,Rhithron Associates Inc. | Sjunneskog C.,Louisiana State University | Scherer R.,Northern Illinois University | And 2 more authors.
Global and Planetary Change | Year: 2012

The ANDRILL AND-1B drillcore in southern Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica recovered an upper Miocene to early Pleistocene continental shelf stratigraphic section, including a spectacular Pliocene and Pleistocene sequence of alternating diamictite and diatom-rich sediments. This punctuated sequence reflects variation between glacial sediments deposited by ice advance over the site and open-marine diatom productivity and sedimentation. An early Pliocene age for the base of diatom-rich sediment is constrained through integrated diatom biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. The presence of marine diatom Shionodiscus tetraoestrupii from the top of the core to 583.64. mbsf indicates the lowest diatom-bearing sediments are younger than 5. Ma. This drillcore provides important new chronostratigraphic control for paleoenvironmental changes also recorded in three drillcores from the western coast of the McMurdo Sound area, DVDP-10 and -11 in Taylor Valley and CIROS-2 from the seaward edge of Ferrar Fjord. The refined continental shelf biostratigraphy developed from AND-1B provides a framework for regional correlation to understand better the timing and character of large paleoenvironmental changes in the western Ross Sea that involve the history of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Multivariate analysis, along with traditional biostratigraphic approaches, enables the correlation and comparison of coeval intervals in these drillcores. A composite stratigraphic sequence from these four cores suggests the early and mid-Pliocene Ross Sea experienced extended intervals of open-marine conditions with minimal sea-ice cover and high diatom production and sedimentation. This new information provides important constraints on Antarctic paleoclimate and ice sheet history during an important interval when global climate was warmer than today. The history preserved in these four drillcores will be an important tool to guide and test future ice sheet and climate models. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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