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Fiocchi A.,Pediatric Hospital Bambino Gesu | Burks W.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Bahna S.L.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Bielory L.,The New School | And 12 more authors.
World Allergy Organization Journal

Background: Probiotic administration has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of specific allergic manifestations such as eczema, rhinitis, gastrointestinal allergy, food allergy, and asthma. However, published statements and scientific opinions disagree about the clinical usefulness. Objective: A World Allergy Organization Special Committee on Food Allergy and Nutrition review of the evidence regarding the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergy. Methods: A qualitative and narrative review of the literature on probiotic treatment of allergic disease was carried out to address the diversity and variable quality of relevant studies. This variability precluded systematization, and an expert panel group discussion method was used to evaluate the literature. In the absence of systematic reviews of treatment, meta-analyses of prevention studies were used to provide data in support of probiotic applications. Results: Despite the plethora of literature, probiotic research is still in its infancy. There is a need for basic microbiology research on the resident human microbiota. Mechanistic studies from biology, immunology, and genetics are needed before we can claim to harness the potential of immune modulatory effects of microbiota. Meanwhile, clinicians must take a step back and try to link disease state with alterations of the microbiota through well-controlled longterm studies to identify clinical indications. Conclusions: Probiotics do not have an established role in the prevention or treatment of allergy. No single probiotic supplement or class of supplements has been demonstrated to efficiently influence the course of any allergic manifestation or long-term disease or to be sufficient to do so. Further epidemiologic, immunologic, microbiologic, genetic, and clinical studies are necessary to determine whether probiotic supplements will be useful in preventing allergy. Until then, supplementation with probiotics remains empirical in allergy medicine. In the future, basic research should focus on homoeostatic studies, and clinical research should focus on preventive medicine applications, not only in allergy. Collaborations between allergo-immunologists and microbiologists in basic research and a multidisciplinary approach in clinical research are likely to be the most fruitful. Copyright © 2012 World Allergy Organization. Source

Schutz K.,Hannover Medical School | Hughes R.G.,The Binding Site Group | Parker A.,The Binding Site Group | Quinti I.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Immunology

Purpose A poor antibody response of IgM and IgA antibodies upon vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides (PnPS) is discussed as independent risk factors for bronchiectasis in patients with antibody deficiency syndrome (ADS) receiving immunoglobulin replacement therapy. However, the kinetics of the specific IgM and IgA response to vaccination with multivalent pneumococcal polysaccharides requires a more detailed knowledge. In this study we aimed i) to develop a standardised multivalent PnPS-IgM and IgA-ELISA, and ii) to compare the sensitivity of the multivalent to the serotype specific antibody response, and iii) to determine the kinetics of the anti-PnPS IgM and IgA antibodies in healthy subjects. Methods We immunised n020 healthy adults with a 23- valent PnPS vaccine (Pneumovax®). The kinetics of the 23-valent antibody response was assessed for 1 year with newly developed ELISAs for IgM and IgA isotypes, along with serotype specific responses. Results The IgA and IgM antibody response peaked at 2 and 3weeks, respectively. IgM antibody levels remained at a plateau (above 80 % of peak response) for 3 months. After one year, specific antibody levels were still at about 30 % of the peak response. The 23-valent antibody response yielded significantly higher responder rates than assessment of single serotypes. Conclusion Testing the IgM and IgA immune response to polysaccharide vaccination with a multivalent PnPS ELISA may be a feasible tool for assessment of the immune function in patient groups who receive IgG replacement therapy. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

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