Reykjavik, Iceland

Reykjavik University
Reykjavik, Iceland

Reykjavík University , also known as RU, is the largest private university in Iceland with more than 3,200 students and over 500 employees . It is chartered by the Chamber of Commerce, the Federation of Icelandic Industries, and the Confederation of Icelandic Employers.The university is fully bilingual by the beginning of 2010, and it consists of four academic schools: School of Law, School of Business, School of Computer Science and the School of Science and Engineering.The university's Executive MBA program was awarded 5-year accreditation by the London-based international accreditation organisation Association of MBAs in October 2011. Wikipedia.

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Benediktsdottir B.E.,University of Iceland | Baldursson O.,Reykjavik University | Masson M.,University of Iceland
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2014

The polysaccharide chitosan and the water soluble chitosan derivative N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) have been widely investigated as permeation enhancers of mucosal surfaces with numerous papers published over the last two decades. Although both chitosan and TMC increase permeation of markers through mucosal membranes, such as the intestinal and airway epithelium as well as in in vivo models, these investigations have not led to their use in marketed drug formulations. In this review, the reported extent of the permeation enhancement and cell viability after chitosan or TMC treatment in intestinal and airway models is critically evaluated and concluded that the apparent discrepancies can be explained by differences in polymer structure, experimental conditions and in vitro models. Additionally, aspects regarding the synthesis of TMC and its structural characterization are described, focusing on new synthetic strategies implemented to reduce O-methylation. Finally recommendations are provided on how studies can be conducted to improve understanding of the structure-activity relationship and elucidate possible mechanism of action. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2013.7.2.1 | Award Amount: 10.86M | Year: 2013

Power system reliability management means to take decisions under increasing uncertainty (for instance, related to renewable generation). It aims to maintain power system performance at a desired level, while minimizing the socio-economic costs of keeping the power system at that performance level. Seven TSOs (Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Iceland, Norway), together with eleven RTD performers, propose the four year GARPUR research project. GARPUR designs, develops, assesses and evaluates new system reliability criteria and management while maximizing social welfare as they are progressively implemented over the next decades at a pan-European level. The new management methodologies encompass multiple business activities (system development, asset management, power system operation) that, in turn, ensure coherent decision-making at the respective time horizons. These methodologies also involve mathematical and computational models to predict the location, duration and amount of power supply interruptions. Five alternatives to improve reliability management of the pan-European power system are studied. After practical validation by the TSOs, these alternatives are analysed with the help of a quantification platform. Pilot tests of the new proposed reliability criteria are performed by individual TSOs or (when appropriate) a group of TSOs using this quantification platform, either in a given control zone or (where appropriate) throughout the pan-European system. Reliability criteria are compared and presented to the TSO community and regulatory authorities who establish the robustness of the results. Dissemination activities of the new reliability criteria are supported by a Reference Group of TSOs and address all the key electricity market stakeholders. An implementation roadmap is delivered for the deployment of the resulting technical and regulatory solutions to keep the pan-European system reliability at optimal socio-economic levels.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH-2009-3.3-5 | Award Amount: 1.78M | Year: 2010

The European Commission and other funding agencies make a large investment in child health research. The health of our children is satisfactory, but there are serious concerns, for example, obesity, mental health, alcohol abuse, and sexuality. We know that there are strong links between the health of young people and their social inclusion and level of education. Our objective is to establish a sustainable network for researchers, funders, policy makers, advocates and young people in Europe, to support collaboration in developing the future of child health research. We will produce an inventory of research, and reports, on gaps in research, and on roadmaps for the future of research. Our co-ordination will establish a unique, open, multi-lingual platform for child health research. This will embrace the full multi-disciplinary diversity of European research, while addressing fragmentation by making the parts visible, and supporting multi-lingual input and searching. We will develop formal processes for finding gaps in research, and for making roadmaps. We will use these to find current gaps, and make roadmaps for the future, including for the necessary research capacity. We will promote our work and our results in a series of meetings open to researchers and other stakeholders. Our consortium is a multi-disciplinary team, with great experience in doing innovative child health research in Europe, in developing, and in delivering child health strategies at national, and European level. This mixture of skills and experience gives us a unique perspective on the strategic problems at European level. We have an Expert Group, including young people, advocates, and researchers who will support us. RICHE will support the development and implementation of child health research strategies, and the use of evidence for child health action. These in turn will support innovative research, improve social policy for children, and so improve the quality of life of European children.

Bjornsson E.,Reykjavik University
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Background Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important differential diagnosis in many patients in clinical hepatology. DILI is the leading cause of acute liver failure and is an important safety issue when new drugs are developed. Aims To provide a review of the recent data on DILI with particular focus on the most common and relevant issues seen in clinical practice. Methods A Medline search was undertaken to identify relevant literature using search terms including 'drug-induced liver injury' and 'hepatotoxicity'. Results The true incidence of DILI remains unknown but incidence up to 14 cases per 100 000 inhabitants and year has been reported. Antibiotics, analgesics and NSAIDs are the most common drugs causing liver injury. Idiosyncratic DILI has been shown to have a dose-dependent component and drugs without significant hepatic metabolism rarely cause DILI. Chronic elevation in liver enzymes can develop after DILI but this is rarely associated with clinical morbidity or mortality. Conclusions Drug-induced liver injury remains a diagnostic challenge. Multicentre studies and international collaborative work with well-characterized patients will increase our understanding of liver injury associated with drugs. New therapies for acute liver failure resulting from drugs are needed. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Bjornsson E.S.,Reykjavik University
Seminars in Liver Disease | Year: 2014

Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is, like other adverse effects of drugs, underreported and underestimated in most epidemiological studies based on registries of DILI cases and reporting systems (e.g., Medwatch). The same is probably true for prospective population-based studies, although they are much more likely to mirror the true incidence of DILI. Despite these challenges, the epidemiology of DILI remains of utmost importance and is gradually coming into better focus. A recent population based study found a crude incidence of ∼19 cases per 100,000 per year. Certain agents are particularly noteworthy for their DILI risk. Amoxicillin-clavulanate continues to be the most commonly implicated agent occurring in ∼1 out of 2,300 users. Some others that standout with significantly higher risk include azathioprine and infliximab. Although statin-induced hepatotoxicity has been well documented, the risk is probably quite low. Overall, the majority of DILI in children and adults is associated with either antibiotics or anticonvulsants. Drug-induced liver injury associated with intravenously given drugs does not show any major differences from DILI due to orally administered agents. Unfortunately, our understanding of pretherapy risk assessment remains rudimentary for the most part. Copyright © 2014 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

James J.E.,Reykjavik University
Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior | Year: 2014

Human cognitive performance is widely perceived to be enhanced by caffeine at usual dietary doses. However, the evidence for and against this belief continues to be vigorously contested. Controversy has centred on caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal as potential sources of experimental confounding. In response, some researchers have enlisted "caffeine-naïve" experimental participants (persons alleged to consume little or no caffeine) assuming that they are not subject to withdrawal. This mini-review examines relevant research to illustrate general methodological challenges that have been the cause of enduring confusion in caffeine research. At issue are the processes of caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal, the definition of caffeine-naïve, the population representativeness of participants deemed to be caffeine-naïve, and confounding due to caffeine tolerance. Attention to these processes is necessary if premature conclusions are to be avoided, and if caffeine's complex effects and the mechanisms responsible for those effects are to be illuminated. Strategies are described for future caffeine research aimed at minimising confounding from withdrawal and withdrawal reversal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IAPP | Award Amount: 726.96K | Year: 2010

The goals of the StageIt project are to develop knowledge about how SMEs can take advantage of experience staging as a means to improve their competitiveness and put this knowledge into practice in three SMEs. The point of departure is the recognition that technological innovation alone does not necessarily insure market acceptance. Instead, competitive environments require innovation that goes beyond technology to provide less tangible, but potentially more valuable, experiential benefits. The StageIt project is based on the notion of the experience economy, which is the fourth stage in the progression of economic value, preceded by extracting fungible commodities, manufacturing tangible goods and delivering intangible services. Each stage in this progression represents a superior value proposition, with higher potential for competitive advantage. StageIts industry-academia collaboration includes two universities and three SMEs that will benefit from transformation to experience staging. The academic participants contribute their knowledge, research findings and expertise and the industry participants contribute their practical experience prior to, during and following the transformation. The collaboration will make it possible to approach the transformation of SMEs into experience stagers from both a pragmatic and a theoretical point of view. Knowledge will be transferred within the consortium by staff secondments and workshops. Knowledge will be transferred to the broader academic and industrial communities through presentations in academic and industry conferences, academic publications and industry reports. The academic partners will raise the quality of their research on experiential design based on the data and insight gained. The industry partners will improve their RTD capability based on the knowledge gained from collaboration with the academic partners, and each other, and enhance their competitive advantage based on the transformations realized.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IAPP | Award Amount: 1.40M | Year: 2013

Business model innovation has to do with inventing and implementing new models for doing business and creating value. As such, business model innovation can be viewed as a process of transformation and reinvention (hence, the acronym for this project). Because of the unique importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and the creative sectors for Europe, Reinvent will have SMEs in creative sectors as its empirical focus. Reinvent will develop knowledge about how SMEs in creative sectors SMEs operating in both digital and non-digital markets - can implement business model innovation as a means to enhance competitive advantage, and put this knowledge into practice in three SMEs. Reinvent will create opportunities to evaluate and validate business model innovation as a competitive tool for European SMEs through empirical research among SMEs in the partner countries. The research to be conducted in Reinvent is particularly relevant right now as Europe faces the challenge of finding ways out of the current economic recession. Identifying the keys to creating successful business models with which recovery based on innovation and entrepreneurship in the creative sectors can be achieved is particularly urgent. Reinvent will have substantial impact for European SMEs, which need approaches, methods and tools to develop competitive strategies. Reinvent will develop, implement and evaluate tools for business model innovation. Developing the capability for business model innovation in SMEs across a range of creative sectors will contribute to European firms ability to create and maintain competitive advantage. A comprehensive impact and dissemination strategy has been devised, including dissemination and networking aimed at the general public, policy makers, academia and industry, particularly SMEs. This will ensure that the project impacts SMEs outside the consortium and, thereby, at a broad European level.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IEF | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IEF | Award Amount: 145.28K | Year: 2013

The main objective of the research project is to develop computationally efficient and robust procedures and algorithms for aerodynamic shape optimization using high-fidelity computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulators that would go beyond the current state of the art and its limitations. The developed methodology will handle both two-dimensional and three dimensional aerodynamic/hydrodynamic surfaces, such as airfoils, wings, wing/fuselage, wing/fuselage/nacelle/pylon, turbomachinery blades, and submersibles. The critical task is to obtain satisfactory designs at a reasonable computational cost (in terms of the number of high-fidelity CFD simulations). To achieve the objective physics based surrogate optimization technique that combines the speed of the low-fidelity models with the accuracy of the CPU-intensive high-fidelity ones will be adopted. A special emphasis will be on finding ways to fully employ the embedded knowledge within the physics-bases surrogates to achieve a low computational cost of the overall design optimization. In particular, this will involve the development of new methodologies for generating cheap and robust low-fidelity models, and, equally important, reliable and accurate response correction techniques for aerodynamic responses. The developed procedures will be implemented in a software package for automated aerodynamic design . The programming environment used in the project is Matlab. The aerodynamic design procedures, as well as their software implementation, will be subjected to extensive numerical verification using a set of benchmark problems involving 2D and 3D cases for subsonic and transonic conditions. The goal will be to verify the ability of the procedures and algorithms to yield satisfactory and feasible designs at low computational cost. The performance of our algorithms will be compared to state-of-the-art methodologies described in literature. Then the methodologies will be applied to relevant industry design problems.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERC-COG | Phase: ERC-CoG-2014 | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2015

The overall objective of the proposed research is to improve our understanding of the interplay between biological, environmental, and social factors that influence the development of harmful behaviours in adolescents. We propose to conduct the first multilevel cohort study of its kind that would combine biological, behavioural, and social data from before birth through adolescence for an entire population birth cohort of adolescents. The program is based in Iceland due to a unique infrastructure for the collection of health and social registry data as well as available access to a whole cohort of adolescents. We will extend our previous work using a multilevel developmental framework to identify both individual and collective level variables to study the independent and interactive effects of biological, environmental, and social determinants of adolescent harmful behaviours, with special emphasis on the influence of stress on substance use, self-inflicted harm, suicidal behaviour, and delinquency. Our retrospective longitudinal database will include existing registry information on maternal, child, and environmental determinants of adolescent harmful behaviours, measured prior to birth, at the time of birth, and during the infant, toddler, preschool, middle-childhood and early adolescent years, for the entire 2000 year birth cohort. We will prospectively measure biomarkers in human saliva and use an existing social survey infrastructure to add to the registry database. We have acquired all necessary ethical and organizational permissions and have carried out a preliminary study that shows registry data compliance of over 90% for all variables we intend to combine. This is a fundamental research project, examining unchartered territory. The results of this project will stimulate international research but more importantly, an understanding that will lead to better policies, planning and quality of life for young people in Europe and beyond.

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