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Reykjavik, Iceland

Reykjavík University , also known as RU, is the largest private university in Iceland with more than 3,200 students and over 500 employees . It is chartered by the Chamber of Commerce, the Federation of Icelandic Industries, and the Confederation of Icelandic Employers.The university is fully bilingual by the beginning of 2010, and it consists of four academic schools: School of Law, School of Business, School of Computer Science and the School of Science and Engineering.The university's Executive MBA program was awarded 5-year accreditation by the London-based international accreditation organisation Association of MBAs in October 2011. Wikipedia.

Bjornsson E.S.,Reykjavik University
Seminars in Liver Disease | Year: 2014

Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is, like other adverse effects of drugs, underreported and underestimated in most epidemiological studies based on registries of DILI cases and reporting systems (e.g., Medwatch). The same is probably true for prospective population-based studies, although they are much more likely to mirror the true incidence of DILI. Despite these challenges, the epidemiology of DILI remains of utmost importance and is gradually coming into better focus. A recent population based study found a crude incidence of ∼19 cases per 100,000 per year. Certain agents are particularly noteworthy for their DILI risk. Amoxicillin-clavulanate continues to be the most commonly implicated agent occurring in ∼1 out of 2,300 users. Some others that standout with significantly higher risk include azathioprine and infliximab. Although statin-induced hepatotoxicity has been well documented, the risk is probably quite low. Overall, the majority of DILI in children and adults is associated with either antibiotics or anticonvulsants. Drug-induced liver injury associated with intravenously given drugs does not show any major differences from DILI due to orally administered agents. Unfortunately, our understanding of pretherapy risk assessment remains rudimentary for the most part. Copyright © 2014 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. Source

Chalasani N.,Indiana University | Chalasani N.,Clarian Digestive Diseases Center | Bjornsson E.,Reykjavik University
Gastroenterology | Year: 2010

Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare disorder that is not related directly to dosage and little is known about individuals who are at increased risk. There are no suitable preclinical models for the study of idiosyncratic DILI and its pathogenesis is poorly understood. It is likely to arise from complex interactions among genetic, nongenetic host susceptibility, and environmental factors. Nongenetic risk factors include age, sex, and other diseases (eg, chronic liver disease or human immunodeficiency virus infection). Compound-specific risk factors include daily dose, metabolism characteristics, and propensity for drug interactions. Alcohol consumption has been proposed as a risk factor for DILI from medications, but there is insufficient evidence to support this. Many studies have explored genetic defects that might be involved in pathogenesis and focused on genes involved in drug metabolism and the immune response. Multicenter databases of patients with DILI (the United States Drug Induced Liver Injury Network, DILIGEN, and the Spanish DILI registry) are important tools for clinical and genetic research. A genome-wide association study of flucloxacillin hepatotoxicity has yielded groundbreaking results and many similar studies are underway. Nonetheless, DILI is challenging to investigate because of its rarity, the lack of experimental models, the number of medications that might cause it, and challenges to diagnosis. © 2010 AGA Institute. Source

Andersen K.,Reykjavik University
Current Hypertension Reports | Year: 2013

Hypertension is an established risk factor for stroke, premature coronary artery disease and heart failure. Control of elevated blood pressure has been shown to result in significant reduction of cardiovascular risk. Aldosterone, the final product of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), not only causes salt and water reabsorbtion in the kidneys through its effect on the mineralocorticoid hormone receptor (MR), but also an MR-independent effect, not regulated by conventional MR blockade. Although many pharmacological agents target different levels of the RAAS cascade, these generally result in elevated renin concentration and plasma renin activity. This upstream feedback response subsequently results in elevated levels of angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor and stimulus to aldosterone release. This aldosterone breakthrough counteracts the longterm blood pressure-lowering effect of these agents. Therefore the development of a new class of pharmacologic agents that directly inhibit the production of aldosterone may prove clinically useful in reducing aldosterone and thereby controlling elevated blood pressure. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. Source

Candi M.,Reykjavik University
Journal of Product Innovation Management | Year: 2010

The goal of this research is to investigate the benefits that may be gained from using aesthetic design in new service development. The research is performed in two phases. In the first phase, case research examining the use of aesthetic design in 16 new service development projects in new technology-based firms is used to determine the objectives underlying managers' decisions to use aesthetic design in new service development. The results of the case research suggest that the objectives underlying managers' decisions to use aesthetic design in new service development are attracting new customers, creating and fostering a positive image of their firm in their market, retaining existing customers, and doing so at lower cost. In the second phase, the results of the case research are used to generate hypotheses that are tested using longitudinal survey data collected in 98 new technology-based firms. The findings suggest that by and large the benefits expected by managers are realized. The practitioner implications of this research are that new technology-based firms that emphasize the use of aesthetic design in new service development can expect to have a greater proportion of sales from new customers, be less dependent on a few large customers, be more successful in entering new markets, have a more favorable firm image, and enjoy higher turnover growth from existing customers and higher profits than comparable firms not using aesthetic design. The data do not provide support for the hypothesis that firms using aesthetic design in new service development will have customers that are less inclined to switch their allegiance to competitors, whereas it does support the hypothesis that firms using aesthetic design will enjoy higher turnover growth from existing customers than others. This could indicate that, although firms cannot expect to retain customer loyalty based on aesthetic design, they can expect to earn greater revenues from customers who do remain loyal if they emphasize aesthetic design. © 2010 Product Development & Management Association. Source

James J.E.,Reykjavik University
Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior | Year: 2014

Human cognitive performance is widely perceived to be enhanced by caffeine at usual dietary doses. However, the evidence for and against this belief continues to be vigorously contested. Controversy has centred on caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal as potential sources of experimental confounding. In response, some researchers have enlisted "caffeine-naïve" experimental participants (persons alleged to consume little or no caffeine) assuming that they are not subject to withdrawal. This mini-review examines relevant research to illustrate general methodological challenges that have been the cause of enduring confusion in caffeine research. At issue are the processes of caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal, the definition of caffeine-naïve, the population representativeness of participants deemed to be caffeine-naïve, and confounding due to caffeine tolerance. Attention to these processes is necessary if premature conclusions are to be avoided, and if caffeine's complex effects and the mechanisms responsible for those effects are to be illuminated. Strategies are described for future caffeine research aimed at minimising confounding from withdrawal and withdrawal reversal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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