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DeVincenzo J.P.,University of Memphis | DeVincenzo J.P.,Childrens Foundation Research Institute | Whitley R.J.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Mackman R.L.,Gilead Sciences | And 14 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of infant hospitalizations and is increasingly recognized as a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality. No accepted antiviral treatment exists. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of GS-5806, an oral RSV-entry inhibitor, in healthy adults who received a clinical challenge strain of RSV intranasally. Participants were monitored for 12 days. At the time of a positive test for RSV infection or 5 days after inoculation, whichever occurred first, participants were randomly assigned to receive GS-5806 or placebo in one of seven sequential cohorts. Cohorts 1 to 4 received a first dose of 50 mg of GS-5806 and then 25 mg daily for the next 4 days, cohort 5 received a first dose of 50 mg and then 25 mg daily for the next 2 days, cohort 6 received one 100-mg dose, and cohort 7 received a first dose of 10 mg and then 5 mg daily for the next 4 days. Dose selection for cohorts 5, 6, and 7 occurred after an interim analysis of data for cohorts 1 to 4. The primary end point was the area under the curve (AUC) for the viral load, which was assessed after administration of the first dose through the 12th day after inoculation. Secondary end points were mucus weight and symptom scores. RESULTS: Among the 54 participants in cohorts 1 to 4 who were infected with RSV, active treatment was associated with a lower viral load (adjusted mean, 250.7 vs. 757.7 log10 plaque-forming-unit equivalents [PFUe] x hours per milliliter; P<0.001), lower total mucus weight (mean, 6.9 g vs. 15.1 g; P = 0.03), and a lower AUC for the change from baseline in symptom scores (adjusted mean, -20.2 vs. 204.9 x hours; P = 0.005). The results were similar in cohorts 5, 6, and 7. Adverse events, including low neutrophil counts and increased levels of alanine aminotransferase, were more common among participants receiving GS-5806. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with GS-5806 reduced the viral load and the severity of clinical disease in a challenge study of healthy adults. Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

University of Southampton and Retroscreen Virology | Date: 2011-12-23

The present invention provides a screening method for identifying a peptide capable of inducing a T cell response comprising:

Huang K.-Y.A.,Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine | Li C.K.-F.,Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine | Clutterbuck E.,University of Oxford | Chui C.,Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases

Background. Antibodies play a major role in the protection against influenza virus in human. However, the antibody level is usually short-lived and the cellular mechanisms underlying influenza virus-specific antibody response to acute infection remain unclear.Methods. We studied the kinetics and magnitude of influenza virus-specific B-cell and serum antibody responses in relation to virus replication during the course of influenza infection in healthy adult volunteers who were previously seronegative and experimentally infected with seasonal influenza H1N1 A/Brisbane/59/07 virus.Results. Our data demonstrated a robust expansion of the virus-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) and memory B cells in the peripheral blood, which correlated with both the throat viral load and the duration of viral shedding. The ASC response was obviously detected on day 7 post-infection when the virus was completely cleared from nasal samples, and serum hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies were still undetectable. On day 28 postinfection, influenza virus-specific B cells were further identified from the circulating compartment of isotype-switched B cells.Conclusions. Virus-specific ASCs could be the earliest marker of B-cell response to a new flu virus infection, such as H7N9 in humans. © The Author 2014. Source

De Vincenzo J.P.,University of Memphis | McClure M.W.,Alios BioPharma | Symons J.A.,Alios BioPharma | Fathi H.,Retroscreen Virology | And 6 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine

Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality. There is no known effective therapy. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in healthy adults inoculated with RSV. Participants received the oral nucleoside analogue ALS-008176 or placebo 12 hours after confirmation of RSV infection or 6 days after inoculation. Treatment was administered every 12 hours for 5 days. Viral load, disease severity, resistance, and safety were measured throughout the 28-day study period, with measurement beginning before inoculation. The primary end point was the area under the curve (AUC) for viral load, which was assessed immediately before administration of the first dose through the 12th day after inoculation in participants infected with RSV. Results A total of 62 participants received placebo or one of three ALS-008176 dosing regimens: 1 loading dose of 750 mg followed by 9 maintenance doses of 500 mg (group 1), 1 loading dose of 750 mg followed by 9 maintenance doses of 150 mg (group 2), or 10 doses of 375 mg (group 3). In the 35 infected participants (23 of whom were treated with ALS-008176), the AUCs for viral load for groups 1, 2, and 3 and the placebo group were 59.9, 73.7, 133.4, and 500.9 log10 plaque-forming-unit equivalents ¡Á hours per milliliter, respectively (P¡Ü0.001). The time to nondetectability on polymerase-chain-reaction assay (P<0.001), the peak viral load (P¡Ü0.001), the AUC for symptom score (P<0.05), and the AUC for mucus weight were lower in all groups receiving ALS-008176 than in the placebo group. Antiviral activity was greatest in the two groups that received a loading dose ¡ viral clearance was accelerated (P¡Ü0.05), and the AUC for viral load decreased by 85 to 88% as compared with the placebo group. Within this small trial, no viral rebound or resistance was identified. There were no serious adverse events, and there was no need for premature discontinuation of the study drug. Conclusions In this RSV challenge study, more rapid RSV clearance and a greater reduction of viral load, with accompanying improvements in the severity of clinical disease, were observed in the groups treated with ALS-008176 than in the placebo group. © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Napoli C.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Fabiani M.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Rizzo C.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Barral M.,Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development | And 13 more authors.

The response to the emergence of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic was the result of a decade of pandemic planning, largely centred on the threat of an avian influenza A(H5N1) pandemic. Based on a literature review, this study aims to define a set of new pandemic scenarios that could be used in case of a future influenza pandemic. A total of 338 documents were identified using a searching strategy based on seven combinations of keywords. Eighty-three of these documents provided useful information on the 13 virusrelated and health-system-related parameters initially considered for describing scenarios. Among these, four parameters were finally selected (clinical attack rate, case fatality rate, hospital admission rate, and intensive care admission rate) and four different levels of severity for each of them were set. The definition of six most likely scenarios results from the combination of four different levels of severity of the four final parameters (256 possible scenarios). Although it has some limitations, this approach allows for more flexible scenarios and hence it is far from the classic scenarios structure used for pandemic plans until 2009. © 2015, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved. Source

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