Stoehr M.,British Columbia Ministry of forests |
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2017
Pollen contamination was evaluated using control-pollinated seedlings pollinated with polymixes of orchard pollen and pure wildstand and wind-pollinated orchard seedlings. At age 7, seedlings pollinated with contaminate pollen were the shortest across all four sites, but had survival levels (83%) similar to open-pollinated (84%) and pure orchard seedlings (86%). Open-pollinated seedlings had intermediate heights while pure orchard seedlings were tallest. The level of pollen contamination in open-pollinated seedlots was estimated to be 26%. Survival for all pollen sources combined was similar at the two high-elevation sites (84%) and low-elevation sites (86%). Using a yield model to compare volume/ha at rotation age for open-pollinated orchard seedlings and pure orchard seedlings, differences were small and increased due to site index (SI; from 3 to 6 m3/ha) but not due to planting density. Equivalent discounted benefits at rotation were 27 vs. 54 C$/ha at the two extreme site indices (18 vs. 25), respectively. These projected reductions due to pollen contamination are magnified by the large area that is regenerated annually with orchard seed of coastal Douglas-fir and contamination can cause a reduction in benefits of up to C$748,500 per year at the highest SI at a planting density of 1111 trees/ha. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
Roy C.J.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University |
AIAA SciTech Forum - 55th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting | Year: 2017
Results from the Sixth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-VI), Case 1 Code Verification are presented. This test case is for the turbulent flow over a 2D NACA 0012 airfoil using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models. A numerical benchmark solution is available for the standard Spalart- Allmaras (SA) turbulence model and can be used for code verification purposes, i.e., to verify that the numerical algorithms employed are consistent and that there are no programming mistakes in the software. For this case, there were 31 data submissions from 16 teams: 25 with the SA model (using various versions), 2 with the k-omega SST model, and one each with k-kl, k-epsilon, an explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model, and the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with very large eddy simulation (VLES). Various grid types were employed including structured, unstructured, Cartesian, and adapted grids. The benchmark numerical solution was deemed to be the correct solution for the 23 submissions with the standard SA model, the SA-noft2 variant (without the ft2 term), the SA model with rotation correction (SA-R), and the SA-neg variant (designed to ensure the working variable does not take on a negative value). While many of these 23 submissions did demonstrate first-order convergence on the finer meshes, others showed either non-convergent solutions in terms of the aerodynamic forces and moments or converged to the wrong answer. Results for this case highlight the continuing need for rigorous code verification to be conducted as a prerequisite for design, model validation, and analysis studies. © 2017, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. All rights reserved.
Mintzer S.,Thomas Jefferson University |
French J.A.,New York University |
Perucca E.,University of Pavia |
Cramer J.A.,Yale University |
And 4 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2015
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are the only neurotherapeutics for which regulatory approval is consistently separated into monotherapy or adjunctive-therapy indications. Because head-to-head comparisons of AEDs (used in the European Union to approve drugs for monotherapy) have not shown substantial differences in efficacy between drugs, FDA approval for use of an AED as monotherapy has typically been based on trials with novel designs that have been criticised for reasons of ethics and clinical relevance. Many new-generation AEDs have not been approved for monotherapy, causing drug labelling and real-world use to be increasingly inconsistent, with negative consequences for patients. The regulatory requirement for separate monotherapy and adjunctive-therapy indications in epilepsy is unnecessarily restrictive. We recommend that regulatory agencies approve AEDs for the treatment of specific seizure types or epilepsy syndromes, irrespective of concomitant drug use. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Roberts H.H.,Louisiana State University |
Shedd W.,Ocean energy |
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2010
Use of DSV ALVIN (2006) and ROV JASON II (2007) provided access to never observed or sampled sites of fluid-gas expulsion from the little-studied middle and lower continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico (below water depths of 1000. m). Dives were focused on 15 locations selected by 3-D seismic surface attributes and shallow subsurface geologic analyses. The linkage between highly positive seafloor reflectivity and hard bottoms proved to be an efficient indicator of potential sites of interest. Through observation and sampling of reflective sites, starting in the mid-1980s, it has become apparent that most hard bottoms on the northern Gulf's continental slope are created by the precipitation of authigenic carbonates at hydrocarbon seep sites. Access to the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement's extraordinary archive of slope-wide 3-D seismic data made efficient site selection possible. From thousands of sites that display the characteristics of fluid-gas expulsion, 15 were observed and sampled during the 2006 and 2007 cruises. Water depths in which these 15 sites were located ranged from ~2750 to ~970 m. All sites exhibited evidence of hydrocarbon seepage or more rapid venting. Chemosynthetic organisms, authigenic carbonates, barite, gas hydrates, highly anoxic surface sediments, brine pools, and hydrocarbon-laced brine flows were identified and sampled. High-resolution acoustic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) data, including multibeam bathymetry, side-scan sonar swaths, and chirp sonar subbottom profiles, were collected at four locations (AC601, WR269, GC852, and AT340). Data sets from the 2006 and 2007 dives resulted in a greatly improved understanding of both cross-slope and along-slope variability in the characteristics of fluid-gas expulsion sites and associated habitats. Our studies confirmed the importance of fluid-gas expulsion processes for sustaining chemosynthetic communities and impacting seabed geology on the middle and lower continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
International SAMPE Technical Conference | Year: 2015
This paper describes the multitudinous steps occurring in the manufacturing implementation of a thin coating applied principally by spray technique to hardware. It is restricted to two-component coatings, with the probable addition of a nonreactive thinner. The various considerations, both of a finalized, in-service property nature and the manufacturing application conditions are discussed at length, the latter including the practical matters of obtaining adequate hardware coverage, and methods to perform the thinning and the spraying. These must include avoiding undesired shadowing of sensitive hardware regions, as well as determination of the amount of coating needed to actually remain and thus "cure" on the hardware. The necessary steps to determine amounts of thinner required, spray parameters, etc, are discussed; these include equipment adjustments, measurements, pot life considerations and hardware positioning. Quality control methodology is included. This is all discussed in the context of the material and process specifications being followed in the manufacturing facility. Examples include urethane conformal coating applied to electronic hardware for contamination protection, especially on hardware of a military or aerospace nature. Copyright 2015. Used by the Society of the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering with permission.
International SAMPE Technical Conference | Year: 2015
The flow rate of a paste adhesive extruded from a small exit orifice of various cartridges or syringes depends upon several variables. These, in turn, must be accounted for in manufacturing environments; the higher the rate of items being bonded with these adhesives, the more the variables manifest themselves. Thus, the more important they become. These variables include the type and size of cartridge/syringe, the nature of the exit orifice, applied pressure used to pump the adhesive, adhesive pot (work) life with-respect-to-extrusion, adhesive viscosity and its changes (if any) throughout pot life, adhesive thixotropy, adhesive degassing, adhesive sag resistance on hardware, and finally, whether or not the amount applied to the hardware must be tightly controlled. The latter constitutes a requirement that is difficult to achieve in the face of the variables, unless specific application equipment is used. This paper describes pertinent manufacturing experiences with a variety of applications using different adhesives, including the instance of a precise dispensed amount being imposed. The experiences are discussed in detail, some quantitatively. Practical answers to the resultant problems are described, these reflecting actual manufacturing experiences of the author. Copyright 2015. Used by the Society of the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering with permission.
International SAMPE Technical Conference | Year: 2015
To arrive at a functioning product or system, many steps in several phases must exist between the initial design concept and the finalized product. At each phase, from design to final product, new issues and problems appear, although their existence is often not understood by those scientists and engineers engaged in an earlier phase. In fact, those personnel often do not even know these problems exist. This lack of knowledge results in little understanding and therefore allows many new problems to occur at the manufacturing level. The purpose of this paper is to discuss many of these problems, when they are of a material or process nature, describing their appearances, and their characteristics, and showing how they must be understood in order to produce successful products. Many examples are very generic, while some are very specific. The applications and issues discussed in this paper can be related to many types of materials and processes on products in various industries, although they are primarily applicable to high-tech industries and their products.
Perspectives on Process Safety from Around the World 2016 - Topical Conference at the 2016 AIChE Spring Meeting and 12th Global Congress on Process Safety | Year: 2016
When determining the consequences of a vapor cloud or fire from a liquid spill, the area of the liquid pool is a key variable. If the pool is contained by walls or berms, dispersion or flame parameters can be evaluated directly from the pool area using correlations that are well known to consequence analysts. For a spill onto an unconfined paved area or sloping deck, there is no simple formula for the pool area. For an unconfined pool, area must be calculated from flow modeling. The progressive movement and size of a liquid spill onto a sloped surface can be accurately modeled with well-known fluid equations using an empirical friction factor. The fluid flow formulas for piping can be applied to a sloping flat spill surface by including a correction for the equivalent hydraulic radius, the ratio of flow area to wetted area of the frictional surface. For uncomplicated flow surfaces, spreadsheet calculation is sufficient. Example calculations point out the need for improved knowledge of friction factors in terms of quantitative surface characteristics, and an improved formula for heat transfer during film boiling of cryogenic liquids.
Annals of Diagnostic Pathology | Year: 2010
The information from 221 US histology laboratories (histolabs) and 104 from 24 other countries with workloads from 600 to 116 000 cases per year was used to calculate productivity standards for 23 technical and 27 nontechnical tasks and for 4 types of work flow indicators. The sample includes 254 human, 40 forensic, and 31 veterinary pathology services. Statistical analyses demonstrate that most productivity standards are not different between services or worldwide. The total workload for the US human pathology histolabs averaged 26 061 cases per year, with 54% between 10 000 and less than 30 000. The total workload for 70% of the histolabs from other countries was less than 20 000, with an average of 15 226 cases per year. The fundamental manual technical tasks in the histolab and their productivity standards are as follows: grossing (14 cases per hour), cassetting (54 cassettes per hour), embedding (50 blocks per hour), and cutting (24 blocks per hour). All the other tasks, each with their own productivity standards, can be completed by auxiliary staff or using automatic instruments. Depending on the level of automation of the histolab, all the tasks derived from a workload of 25 cases will require 15.8 to 17.7 hours of work completed by 2.4 to 2.7 employees with 18% of their working time not directly dedicated to the production of diagnostic slides. This article explains how to extrapolate this productivity calculation for any workload and different levels of automation. The overall performance standard for all the tasks, including 8 hours for automated tissue processing, is 3.2 to 3.5 blocks per hour; and its best indicator is the value of the gross work flow productivity that is essentially dependent on how the work is organized. This article also includes productivity standards for forensic and veterinary histolabs, but the staffing benchmarks for histolabs will be the subject of a separate article. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Annals of Diagnostic Pathology | Year: 2010
This article summarizes annual workloads for staff positions and work flow productivity (WFP) values from 247 human pathology, 31 veterinary, and 35 forensic histology laboratories (histolabs). There are single summaries for veterinary and forensic histolabs, but the data from human pathology are divided into 2 groups because of statistically significant differences between those from Spain and 6 Hispano American countries (SpHA) and the rest from the United States and 17 other countries. The differences reflect the way the work is organized, but the histotechnicians and histotechnologists (histotechs) from SpHA have the same task productivity levels as those from any other country (Buesa RJ. Productivity standards for histology laboratories. [YADPA 50 552]). The information is also segregated by groups of histolabs with increasing workloads; this aspect also showed statistical differences. The information from human pathology histolabs other than those from SpHA were used to calculate staffing annual benchmarks for pathologists (from 3700 to 6500 cases depending on the histolab annual workload), pathology assistants (20 000 cases), staff histotechs (9900 blocks), cutting histotechs (15 000 blocks), histotechs doing special procedures (9500 slides if done manually or 15 000 slides with autostainers), dieners (100 autopsies), laboratory aides and transcriptionists (15 000 cases each), and secretaries (20 000 cases). There are also recommendations about workload limits for supervisory staff (lead techs and supervisors) and when neither is required. Each benchmark was related with the productivity of the different tasks they include (Buesa RJ. Productivity standards for histology laboratories. [YADPA 50 552]) to calculate the hours per year required to complete them. The relationship between workload and benchmarks allows the director of pathology to determine the staff needed for the efficient operation of the histolab. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.