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Fernandez-Martinez A.B.,University of Alcala | Torija A.V.,University of Alcala | Carracedo J.,RETICs Red Renal Institute Salud Carlos III | Carracedo J.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2014

Microparticles are produced by vesiculation of the cell plasma membrane and serve as vectors of cell-to-cell communication. Co-culture experiments have shown that hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF-α)-regulated-genes are up-regulated in human renal proximal tubular HK-2 cells by endothelial cell factors which might be transported inside endothelial microparticles (EMP). Here we aimed to study in HK-2 cells the effect of EMP, produced by activated endothelial cells, on HIF-α and HIF-α-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). EMP, at a concentration much lower than that found in plasma, increased the expression of HIF-α/VEGF-A in a COX-2/EP2 receptor dependent manner. Since the EMP/cells ratio was ∼1/1000, we hypothesized that paracrine mediators produced by HK-2 cells amplified the initial signal. This hypothesis was confirmed by two facts which also suggested that the mediators were conveyed by particles released by HK-2 cells: (i) HIF-α was up-regulated in HK-2 cells treated with the pellet obtained from the conditioned medium of the EMP-treated HK-2 cells. (ii) In transwell experiments, EMP-treated cells increased the expression of HIF-α in untreated HK-2 cells. Interestingly, we detected these cells, particles that were released by EMP-treated HK-2 cells. Depending on the pathological context, activation of HIF-α and VEGF-A signaling in renal tissue/cells may have either beneficial or harmful effects. Therefore, our results suggest that their presence in the urinary space of EMP produced by activated endothelial cells may influence the outcome of a number of renal diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Carracedo J.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Carracedo J.,RETICs Red Renal Institute Salud Carlos III | Buendia P.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Buendia P.,RETICs Red Renal Institute Salud Carlos III | And 14 more authors.
Experimental Gerontology | Year: 2013

Renal dysfunction is closely associated with endothelial damage leading to cardiovascular disease. However, the extent to which endothelial damage induced by uremia is modulated by aging is poorly known. Aging can render endothelial cells more susceptible to apoptosis through an oxidative stress-dependent pathway. We examined whether senescence-associated to oxidative stress determines the injury induced by the uremia in endothelial cells.Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was incubated with human uremic serum and, in the animal model, endothelial cells were obtained from aortas of uremic and no uremic rats. Vitamin C was used to prevent oxidative stress. Senescence, assessed by telomere length and enzyme-betagalactosidase (β-gal), reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial depolarization (JC-1 probe), caspase 3, and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. NF-κB activity was determined by Western blot.Uremic serum increased ROS and NF-κB in young and aging HUVEC. However only in aging cells, uremic serum induced apoptosis (vs young HUVEC, p. <. 0.01). The endothelial damage induced by uremia seems to be related with the increased oxidative stress, since in both HUVEC and in the experimental model of renal disease in rats, vitamin C prevents endothelial apoptosis. However, vitamin C did not decrease the oxidative stress associated to senescence. These results showed that as compared with young cells, senescent cells have high sensitivity to damage associated to the oxidative stress induced by the uremia. Consequently, protecting senescent endothelial cells from increased oxidative stress might be an effective therapeutic approach in the treatment of vascular disorders in chronic kidney diseases. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Soriano S.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Soriano S.,RETICs Red Renal Institute Salud Carlos III | Carmona A.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Carmona A.,RETICs Red Renal Institute Salud Carlos III | And 15 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2014

Vascular calcification (VC) is a frequent complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we investigated the potential involvement of endothelial microparticles (MPs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the generation of VC in CKD patients. The number of circulating EMPs is greater in patients with VC than without VC (307 ± 167 vs. 99 ± 75 EMPs/fxl, P < 0.001). The percentage of EPCs is significantly lower in patient with VC than in patients without VC (0.14 ± 0.11% vs. 0.25 ± 0.18%, P = 0.002). The number of EPCs expressing osteocalcin (OCN) was higher in VC patients (349 ± 63 cells/ 100,000) than in non-VC patients (139 ± 75 cells/100,000, P < 0.01). In vitro, MPs obtained from CKD patients were able to induce OCN expression in EPCs from healthy donors; the increase in OCN expression was more accentuated if MPs were obtained from CKD patients with VC. MPs from CKD patients also induced OCN expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. In CKD patients, the rise in endothelial MPs associated with a decrease in the number of EPCs, suggesting an imbalance in the processes of endothelial damage and repair in CKD patients, mainly those with VC. Our results suggest that EPCs, through OCN expression, may directly participate in the process of VC. © 2014 the American Physiological Society. Source

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