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Xie Y.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Xiao G.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Coombes K.R.,University of Houston | Behrens C.,University of Houston | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Purpose: The requirement of frozen tissues for microarray experiments limits the clinical usage of genome-wide expression profiling by using microarray technology. The goal of this study is to test the feasibility of developing lung cancer prognosis gene signatures by using genome-wide expression profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, which are widely available and provide a valuable rich source for studying the association of molecular changes in cancer and associated clinical outcomes. Experimental Design: We randomly selected 100 Non-Small-Cell lung cancer (NSCLC) FFPE samples with annotated clinical information from the UT-Lung SPORE Tissue Bank. We microdissected tumor area from FFPE specimens and used Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 arrays to attain gene expression data. After strict quality control and analysis procedures, a supervised principal component analysis was used to develop a robust prognosis signature for NSCLC. Three independent published microarray datasets were used to validate the prognosis model. Results: This study showed that the robust gene signature derived from genome-wide expression profiling of FFPE samples is strongly associated with lung cancer clinical outcomes and can be used to refine the prognosis for stage I lung cancer patients, and the prognostic signature is independent of clinical variables. This signature was validated in several independent studies and was refined to a 59-gene lung cancer prognosis signature. Conclusions: We conclude that genome-wide profiling of FFPE lung cancer samples can identify a set of genes whose expression level provides prognostic information across different platforms and studies, which will allow its application in clinical settings. ©2011 AACR.

Iqbal S.,University of Southern California | Goldman B.,Southwest Oncology Group Statistical Center | Fenoglio-Preiser C.M.,University of Cincinnati | Lenz H.J.,University of Southern California | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Lapatinib (GW572016) is a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/ErbB2), which are reported as overexpressed in 15%-45% of gastric cancers, making them potential targets. Patients and methods: The primary objective of this study was to assess response rate. Secondary objectives included overall survival (OS), toxicity, and the relationship of EGFR, ErbB2, and markers of angiogenesis with clinical outcome. Lapatinib was administered to chemonaive metastatic gastric cancer patients at a dose of 1500 mg orally daily for 28 days. Results: The study enrolled 47 patients from February 2005 until May 2006. Four patients (9%) had a confirmed partial response (PR), 1 (2%) had an unconfirmed PR, and 10 (23%) had stable disease. Median (95% confidence interval) time to treatment failure was 1.9 (1.6-3.1) months and OS was 4.8 (3.2-7.4) months. Significant adverse events: one grade 4 cardiac ischemia/infarction, one grade 4 fatigue, and one grade 4 emesis. One treatment-related death was due to central nervous system ischemia. An exploratory analysis of markers revealed gene expression of HER2, interleukin (IL)-8 and genomic polymorphisms IL-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor correlated with OS. Conclusions: Lapatinib is well tolerated, with modest single-agent activity in advanced/metastatic gastric cancer patients. Potential molecular correlatives were identified which warrant further validation.

Response Genetics Inc. | Date: 2014-02-27

The present invention relates to methods, primers and probes useful for detecting the presence of mutant BRAF sequences in a sample, specifically for detecting the presence of the BRAF V600E, V600D, V600K, and V600M mutations.

Response Genetics Inc. | Date: 2010-08-10

The present invention relates to methods, primers and probes useful for detecting the presence of mutant BRAF sequences in a sample, specifically for detecting the presence of the BRAF V600E, V600D, V600K, and V600M mutations.

Gandara D.R.,University of California at Davis | Grimminger P.,University of Cologne | Mack P.C.,University of California at Davis | Lara Jr. P.N.,University of California at Davis | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2010

Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with cancers harboring activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) show improved efficacy from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Some clinical studies also suggest enhanced efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with EGFR-mutant cancers. We investigated the relationship of EGFR mutation status and DNA repair capacity, as exemplified by excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1) gene expression, as a potential explanation for this observation. Methods: Microdissected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors from 1207 patients with NSCLC were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction for mRNA expression levels of ERCC1 and for EGFR mutation status by an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: NSCLC subtype was adenocarcinoma (AC) in 712 patients, squamous in 175, and not otherwise specified or other in 320. EGFR activating mutations were detected in 183/1207 patients (15.2%). Median ERCC1 expression overall was 1.82 (range, 0.22-27.31) and was histology related: AC, median = 1.68 (0.22-11.33) and squamous, median = 2.42 (0.51-14.28) (p < 0.001). Using a previously defined reference level of <1.7, ERCC1 expression was categorized as low in 556 of 1207 patients (46.1%). The presence of EGFR mutations was highly associated with ERCC1 expression (p < 0.001). This association was retained when adjusting for AC histologic subtype (p = 0.001). Conclusions: NSCLC specimens harboring EGFR activating mutations are more likely to express low ERCC1 mRNA levels. Whether these findings translate into enhanced clinical efficacy of EGFR-mutant cancers to platinum-based chemotherapy remains to be determined. Copyright © 2010 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.

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