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Castano R.,Hopital du Sacre Coeur de Montreal | Trudeau C.,Respiratory Research Division | Ghezzo H.,Respiratory Research Division
Clinical Otolaryngology | Year: 2010

Objectives: To assess the correlation between acoustic rhinometry and visual analogue scale endpoints in the context of nasal challenge with occupational agents.Design: Prospective controlled study.Setting: University teaching hospital.Participants: Sixty-seven subjects with a history of work-related rhinitis and asthma symptoms.Main outcomes measures: Subjects underwent nasal challenge with control and specific agent on consecutive days. Nasal congestive response to challenge was monitored by acoustic rhinometry and visual analogue scale.Results: Results showed no correlation between visual analogue scale and acoustic rhinometry measurements at baseline on the control (r = -0.13, P = 0.3) and active (r = 0.14, P = 0.2) challenge days. No correlation was found between acoustic rhinometry and visual analogue scale when analysing all measurements obtained at all times after challenge with the control and active agent (control: r = 0.09, P = 0.04; active: r = 0.001, P = 0.9). The correlation between acoustic rhinometry and visual analogue scale was good and significant (r = -0.62, P = <0.01) when the analysis was restricted to cases showing a decrease in nasal volume >40% from baseline values.Conclusions: We showed that the correlation between acoustic rhinometry and subjective nasal patency was poor on steady conditions. However, a significant correlation was observed in those cases showing a greater nasal congestive response after challenge measured by acoustic rhinometry. 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


McGarry N.,Respiratory Research Division | Greene C.M.,Respiratory Research Division | McElvaney N.G.,Respiratory Research Division | Weldon S.,Queen's University of Belfast | Taggart C.C.,Queen's University of Belfast
Journal of Immunology Research | Year: 2015

Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI) is a serine protease inhibitor produced by epithelial and myeloid cells with anti-inflammatory properties. Research has shown that SLPI exerts its anti-inflammatory activity by directly binding to NF-B DNA binding sites and, in so doing, prevents binding and subsequent transcription of proinflammatory gene expression. In the current study, we demonstrate that SLPI can inhibit TNF-α-induced apoptosis in U937 cells and peripheral blood monocytes. Specifically, SLPI inhibits TNF-α-induced caspase-3 activation and DNA degradation associated with apoptosis. We go on to show that this ability of SLPI to inhibit apoptosis is not dependent on its antiprotease activity as antiprotease deficient variants of SLPI can also inhibit TNF-α-induced apoptosis. This reduction in monocyte apoptosis may preserve monocyte function during inflammation resolution and promote infection clearance at mucosal sites. © 2015 Niamh McGarry et al.


Molloy K.,Respiratory Research Division | Hersh C.P.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Morris V.B.,Respiratory Research Division | Carroll T.P.,Respiratory Research Division | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

Rationale: Severe a1-antitrypsin deficiency (typically PiZZ homozygosity) is associated with a significantly increased risk of airflow obstruction and emphysema but the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in PiMZ heterozygotes remains uncertain. Objectives: This was a family-based study to determine the risk of COPD in PiMZ individuals. Methods: We compared 99 PiMM and 89 PiMZ nonindex subjects recruited from 51 index probands who were confirmed PiMZ heterozygotes and also had a diagnosis of COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II-IV. The primary outcome measures of interest were quantitative variables of preand post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio, FEV1 (liters), FEV1 (% predicted), forced expiratory flow midexpiratory phase (FEF25-75; liters per second), FEF25-75 (% predicted), and a categorical outcome of COPD. Measurements and Main Results: PiMZ heterozygotes compared with PiMM individuals had a reduced median (interquartile range) post-bronchodilator FEV1 (% predicted) (92.0 [75.6-105.4] vs. 98.6 [85.5-109.7]; P = 0.04), FEV1/FVC ratio (0.75 [0.66-0.79] vs. 0.78 [0.73-0.83]; P = 0.004), and FEF 25-75 (% predicted) (63.84 [38.45-84.35] vs. 72.8 [55.5-97.7]; P = 0.0013) compared with PiMM individuals. This effect was abrogated in never-smoking and accentuated in ever-smoking PiMZ individuals. PiMZ heterozygosity was associated with an adjusted odds ratio for COPD of 5.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.27-21.15; P = 0.02) and this was higher (odds ratio, 10.65; 95% confidence interval, 2.17-52.29; P = 0.004) in eversmoking individuals. Conclusions: These results indicate that PiMZ heterozygotes have significantly more airflow obstruction and COPD than PiMM individuals and cigarette smoke exposure exerts a significant modifier effect. © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society.


Nguyen S.,Respiratory Research Division | Nguyen S.,University of Montréal | Castano R.,Respiratory Research Division | Castano R.,University of Montréal | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Respiratory Journal | Year: 2012

Patients with coexisting work-related rhinitis and asthma would benefit from an adequate and simultaneous recognition of both diseases. The present case illustrates the advantages and importance of using an integrated approach to confirm a diagnosis of occupational rhinitis (OR) and occupational asthma (OA). A 38-year-old woman, who worked as an animal laboratory technician since 2004, first noticed the appearance of rhinitis and conjunctivitis symptoms in 2007 when she was exposed to rats. A skin-prick test with rat extract was strongly positive. A specific inhalation challenge with parallel assessment of nasal and bronchial responses was conducted. After 10 min of exposure, she developed rhinitis and conjunctivitis symptoms, her forced expiratory volume in 1 s dropped by 27.5% and her nasal volume, measured by acoustic rhinometry, decreased by 80% from baseline values. After allergen exposure, induced sputum and nasal lavage examination demonstrated an increase in eosinophils (11% and 20%, respectively). A diagnosis of associated allergic OA and OR was confirmed and she was advised to stop working with rats. A systematic and parallel diagnostic approach enables confirmation of a diagnosis of OA and OR in patients complaining of work-related rhinitis and asthma symptoms. ©2012 Pulsus Group Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Respiratory Research Division
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Canadian respiratory journal | Year: 2012

Patients with coexisting work-related rhinitis and asthma would benefit from an adequate and simultaneous recognition of both diseases. The present case illustrates the advantages and importance of using an integrated approach to confirm a diagnosis of occupational rhinitis (OR) and occupational asthma (OA). A 38-year-old woman, who worked as an animal laboratory technician since 2004, first noticed the appearance of rhinitis and conjunctivitis symptoms in 2007 when she was exposed to rats. A skin-prick test with rat extract was strongly positive. A specific inhalation challenge with parallel assessment of nasal and bronchial responses was conducted. After 10 min of exposure, she developed rhinitis and conjunctivitis symptoms, her forced expiratory volume in 1 s dropped by 27.5% and her nasal volume, measured by acoustic rhinometry, decreased by 80% from baseline values. After allergen exposure, induced sputum and nasal lavage examination demonstrated an increase in eosinophils (11% and 20%, respectively). A diagnosis of associated allergic OA and OR was confirmed and she was advised to stop working with rats. A systematic and parallel diagnostic approach enables confirmation of a diagnosis of OA and OR in patients complaining of work-related rhinitis and asthma symptoms.

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