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Pogson Z.,Respiratory Medicine
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

There is a wide geographical variation in the prevalence of asthma and observational studies have suggested that dietary sodium may play a role. To assess the effect of dietary sodium manipulation on asthma control. We carried out a search using the Cochrane Airways Group asthma register. We searched the bibliographies of included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for additional studies. We carried out the most recent search in November 2010. We considered only RCTs that involved dietary sodium reduction or increased sodium intake in patients with asthma. Both review authors assessed study and extracted data. We conducted data analyses in RevMan 5 using mean differences and random effects. We identified a total of nine studies in relation to sodium manipulation and asthma, of which five were in people with asthma (318 participants), and four in people with exercise-induced asthma (63 participants). There were no significant benefits of salt restriction on the control of asthma. There was some evidence from the exercise-induced asthma studies that a low sodium diet may improve lung function after exercise and possibly baseline lung function, but this is based on findings from a very small numbers of participants. This review did not find any evidence that dietary sodium reduction significantly improves asthma control. Although dietary sodium reduction may result in improvements in lung function in exercise-induced asthma, the clinical significance of this effect is unclear. Source

News Article | September 19, 2011
Site: www.cnet.com

Too busy to keep up with today's tech news? Here are some of the more interesting stories from CNET and elsewhere for Monday, September 19. • Google Wallet launches today, but you probably can't use it yet. The digital wallet is available for the Samsung Nexus S on the Sprint Nextel network. The wallet uses near-field communication to allow you to pay with your mobile phone. "In the future, our goal is to make it possible for you to add all of your payment cards to Google Wallet, so you can say goodbye to even the biggest traditional wallets," said Osama Bedier, vice president of payments at Google. • While the iPad 3 will likely not make its debut this year, according to an analyst at J.P. Morgan, Apple will likely release two iPhone models before the end of the year. • Smartphones get us closer to the idea of Big Brother. "Person of Interest" debuts on CBS this week to address concerns of living in a digital age. CNET takes a deeper look at the issue of privacy. • Take this, Angry Birds. Foldit game leads to AIDS research breakthrough. • What's going on at Netflix? CNET's Greg Sandoval writes about all the recent drama and how Netflix lost its mojo. • Even before the iPhone 5 is released, Samsung is bringing Apple to court to ban the new phone in Korea. • It looks like Apple is doing OK without Steve Jobs as CEO. Apple stocks hit an all-time peak today. The next major product will be the next iPhone, of course. • CNET's Elinor Mills interviews Richard Clarke, the former U.S. cybersecurity and counterterrorism adviser, about the Patriot Act, WikiLeaks, and privacy. • Opera acquires Handster to move beyond browsers. Handster's services include white-label app stores and developer tools. • Take a look at the U.S. Navy's next-generation radar technology. • While Facebook may waste our time, the social network does help the economy. The Facebook app economy adds nearly 200,000 jobs and $15 billion to the economy. • Japan's defense industry was hit by its first cyberattack. Reuters reports that hackers have gained access to Mitsubishi Heavy Industry's computers at headquarters as well as manufacturing and research sites. • Hate talking on the phone? You're not alone: As it turns out, 73 percent of cell phone users text. Young people between the ages of 18 and 24 are heavy text users--averaging about 109.5 messages a day or 3,200 texts per month.

Dauletbaev N.,McGill University | Cammisano M.,McGill University | Herscovitch K.,McGill University | Lands L.C.,Respiratory Medicine
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2015

Pharmacological stimulation of the antiviral cytokine IFN-β in the airways may help to counter deleterious virus-induced exacerbations in chronic inflammatory lung diseases (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cystic fibrosis). Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] is a known inducer of IFN-β but also costimulates an inflammatory response. The latter response is undesirable given the pre-existing airway inflammation in these diseases. The objective of our study was to identify conditions for poly(I:C) to selectively upregulate IFN-β in airway epithelial cells without a concomitant inflammatory response. The inflammatory response was gauged by production of the chemokine IL-8. Using cell lines and primary airway epithelial cells (both submerged and well-differentiated), we observed that pure poly(I:C) stimulated IFN-β mainly through the TLR3/TRIF pathway and IL-8 through an unidentified pathway. The magnitude of the IL-8 response stimulated by pure poly(I:C) matched or even exceeded that of IFN-β. Furthermore, this IL-8 response could not be pharmacologically downregulated without affecting IFN-β. In contrast, we show that stimulation of the RIG-I/MAVS pathway, such as when poly(I:C) is delivered intracellularly in a complex with liposomes or via nucleofection, selectively stimulates IFN-β with low IL-8 costimulation. The magnitude of IFN-β stimulation by liposome-encapsulated poly(I:C) is markedly diminished in well-differentiated cells. In conclusion, it is feasible to augment IFN-β production in airway epithelial cells without excessive costimulation of IL-8 if the RIG-I/MAVS pathway is stimulated, such as via liposomal delivery of poly(I:C). Better cytoplasmic delivery vehicles are needed to efficiently stimulate this pathway in well-differentiated cells. © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. Source

Kurasawa T.,Respiratory Medicine
Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine | Year: 2011

We report the epidemiology on tuberculosis in the world and Japan. From the "Global Tuberculosis Control 2010" of WHO, the estimates of the global burden of disease caused by tuberculosis (TB) in 2009 are as follow: 9.4 million incident cases (equivalent to 137 cases per 100,000 population), 14 million prevalent cases, 1.3 million deaths among HIV-negative people and 0.38 million deaths among HIV-positive people. Most cases were in the South-East Asia, African, Western Pacific regions (35%, 30%, 20%, respectively). In Japan, new registered cases of TB in 2009 were 24,170 (equivalent to 19.0 cases per 100,000 population). The numbers of patients under 79 years old were decreased, but the numbers of patients over 80 y.o. increased, so the patients over 70 y.o. were over half of new registered cases. About 80% cases of TB patients were pulmonary tuberculosis, the numbers of culture-positive and smear-positive patients were 15,635 (equivalent to 12.3 cases per 100,000 population) and 9,675 (equivalent to 7.6 cases per 100,000 population), respectively. The rates of any drug-resistance and MDR-TB were 13.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Source

Smith M.C.,Respiratory Medicine | Wrobel J.P.,Advanced Lung Disease Unit
International Journal of COPD | Year: 2014

omorbidities are frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and significantly impact on patients' quality of life, exacerbation frequency, and survival. There is increasing evidence that certain diseases occur in greater frequency amongst patients with COPD than in the general population, and that these comorbidities significantly impact on patient outcomes. Although the mechanisms are yet to be defined, many comorbidities likely result from the chronic inflammatory state that is present in COPD. Common problems in the clinical management of COPD include recognizing new comorbidities, determining the impact of comorbidities on patient symptoms, the concurrent treatment of COPD and comorbidities, and accurate prognostication. The majority of comorbidities in COPD should be treated according to usual practice, and specific COPD management is infrequently altered by the presence of comorbidities. Unfortunately, comorbidities are often under-recognized and under-treated. This review focuses on the epidemiology of ten major comorbidities in patients with COPD. Further, we emphasize the clinical impact upon prognosis and management considerations. This review will highlight the importance of comorbidity identification and management in the practice of caring for patients with COPD. © 2014 Smith and Wrobel. Source

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