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Parra-Flores J.,University of Bio Bio | Juneja V.,Residue Chemistry and Predictive Microbiology Research Unit | de Fernando G.G.,University of Chile | Aguirre J.,University of Chile | Aguirre J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Cronobacter spp. have been responsible for severe infections in infants associated with consumption of powdered infant formula and follow-up formulae. Despite several risk assessments described in published studies, few approaches have considered the tremendous variability in cell response that small micropopulations or single cells can have in infant formula during storage, preparation or post process/preparation before the feeding of infants. Stochastic approaches can better describe microbial single cell response than deterministic models as we prove in this study. A large variability of lag phase was observed in single cell and micropopulations of ≤50 cells. This variability increased as the heat shock increased and growth temperature decreased. Obviously, variability of growth of individual Cronobacter sakazakii cell is affected by inoculum size, growth temperature and the probability of cells able to grow at the conditions imposed by the experimental conditions should be taken into account, especially when errors in bottle-preparation practices, such as improper holding temperatures, or manipulation, may lead to growth of the pathogen to a critical cell level. The mean probability of illness from initial inoculum size of 1 cell was below 0.2 in all the cases and for inoculum size of 50 cells the mean probability of illness, in most of the cases, was above 0.7. © 2016 Parra-Flores, Juneja, Garcia de Fernando and Aguirre. Source

Shen X.,Shanghai Ocean University | Sun X.,Shanghai Ocean University | Xie Q.,Shanghai Ocean University | Liu H.,Shanghai Ocean University | And 4 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2014

This study examined the antimicrobial effect of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extracts obtained from four cultivars (Elliott, Darrow, Bluecrop, and Duke) on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts against L. monocytogenes and S. Enteritidis in tryptic soy broth were determined. Concentrations of total phenolic compounds and four individual phenolic (chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin, and quercetin-3-galactoside) in the extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau method and HPLC analysis, respectively. All four extracts at 112.5-900mg/mL exhibited a dose-dependent growth-inhibitory effect against L.monocytogenes and S. Enteritidis. L.monocytogenes was significantly more sensitive to the antimicrobial effect of the extracts than S. Enteritidis. Phenolic compounds in the extracts such as chlorogenic acid, quercetin, ellagic acid, and quercetin-3-galactoside were the active antimicrobial compounds in the blueberry extracts. The results of this study suggest that blueberry extract or extract-derived components may be used to control pathogenic microorganisms. More studies on the use of blueberry as a natural antimicrobial in food products are warranted. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Medina M.B.,Residue Chemistry and Predictive Microbiology Research Unit
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

A new method for the detection of phenolics in food systems was developed. This method is based on interactions of phenolics with Fast Blue BB diazonium salt in alkali pH, forming azo complexes, with the absorbance measured at 420 nm after 60 min. The linear regression correlations (R2) of gallic acid calibration standards were >0.99. The phenolic content (gallic acid equivalent) of samples analyzed yielded higher ratios (1.7-6.6) of the total phenolics by Fast Blue BB to Folin-Ciocalteu methods in most beverages and grain samples, but in flaxseed and some juice blends, the ratios were <1. The lower ratios suggest the presence of non-phenolic reducing constituents measured with the Folin-Ciocalteu method as "total phenolics". This method is simple and inexpensive and can be used to rapidly assess the total phenolics of foods and beverages. © This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2011 by the American Chemical Society. Source

Lacombe A.,University of Maine, United States | Tadepalli S.,University of Maine, United States | Hwang C.-A.,Residue Chemistry and Predictive Microbiology Research Unit | Wu V.C.H.,University of Maine, United States
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2013

The antimicrobial activity and model of action of polyphenolic compounds extracted from lowbush wild blueberries (LWB) were studied against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Polyphenols in LWB were extracted using 80% vol/vol methanol and designated as total blueberry phenolics (TBP). The fraction was further separated by a C-18 Sep-Pak cartridge into monomeric phenolics acids (MPA) and anthocyanins plus proanthocyanidins (A&P). The A&P fraction was further separated into anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins using a LH-20 Sephadex column. Each fraction was diluted in 0.85% wt/vol NaCl, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 to achieve 8 log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and incubated at 25 C for 1 h. The survival populations of E. coli O157:H7 in the phenolic fractions were determined by a viable cell counts method. The permeability of the cell membrane of E. coli O157:H7 was determined using LIVE/DEAD viability assay, and the damage was visualized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significant (p<0.05) reductions of 5 log CFU/mL of E. coli O157:H7 were observed for MPA at 0.4 g/L gallic acid equivalents (GAE), A&P at 0.9 g/L GAE, and anthocyanins at 0.65 g/L GAE. Reductions of 6-7 CFU/mL were observed for MPA at 0.8 g/L GAE, A&P at 1.8 g/L GAE, and anthocyanins at 1.3 g/L GAE compared to the control. The cell membrane of E. coli O157:H7 exhibited a significantly increased permeability when treated with proanthocyanidins (0.15 g/L GAE), A&P (0.45 g/L GAE), anthocyanins (0.65 g/L GAE), and TBP (0.14 g/L GAE). TEM confirmed the inactivation and increased membrane permeability of E. coli O157:H7. This study demonstrated the antimicrobial effect of polyphenols from LWB against E. coli O157:H7 and the probable mode of action. © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Gurtler J.B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Marks H.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Bailey R.B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Juneja V.,Residue Chemistry and Predictive Microbiology Research Unit | Jones D.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2013

The goal of this study was to determine the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in commercial 10% salted liquid whole egg (LWE) to assist the U.S. Department of Agriculture in writing new liquid egg pasteurization guidelines. Current data are not sufficient for predicting thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. for use in updating pasteurization guidelines for many types of liquid egg products, including salted LWE (SLWE). This is, in part, due to variations in Salmonella strains and changes in the processing of liquid egg products that have arisen in the past 40 years. Pasteurization guidelines are currently being reevaluated in light of recent risk assessments. Heat-resistant Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Oranienburg were composited and mixed into 10% SLWE, resulting in final populations of approximately 5.7-7.8 log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. Inoculated egg was injected into glass capillary tubes, flame-sealed, and heated in a water bath at 60, 62.2, 63.3, 64.3, or 66 C. Contents were surface-plated and incubated at 37 C for 24 h. Survival curves were not log-linear (log levels versus time), but decreased rapidly, and after initial periods became linear. Asymptotic decimal reduction values at each temperature were calculated from survivor curves with a minimum inactivation of 5.0 log CFU/mL. The asymptotic thermal D-values for SLWE were 3.47, 2.23, 1.79, 1.46, and 1.04 min at 60, 62.2, 63.3, 64.3, or 66 C, respectively. The calculated thermal z-value was 11.5 C. A model that predicts lethality for given times and temperatures that was developed predicted that the current pasteurization requirements for 10% SLWE (i.e., 63.3 C for 3.5 min, or 62.2 C for 6.2 min) are not sufficient to inactivate 7 log CFU/mL of Salmonella and only achieve approximately 4 log CFU/mL inactivation. This model will assist egg-products manufacturers and regulatory agencies in designing pasteurization processes to ensure product safety. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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