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Acero F.,NASA | Ackermann M.,German Electron Synchrotron | Ajello M.,University of California at Berkeley | Allafort A.,Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology | And 198 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV γ-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) γ-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV γ-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5° of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their γ-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. A population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Ackermann M.,German Electron Synchrotron | Ajello M.,University of California at Berkeley | Asano K.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Axelsson M.,University of Stockholm | And 229 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2013

In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy (≳ 20 MeV) γ-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected above 100 MeV and 7 GRBs above ∼20 MeV. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of GRBs is a compilation of these detections and provides a systematic study of high-energy emission from GRBs for the first time. To generate the catalog, we examined 733 GRBs detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi and processed each of them using the same analysis sequence. Details of the methodology followed by the LAT collaboration for the GRB analysis are provided. We summarize the temporal and spectral properties of the LAT-detected GRBs. We also discuss characteristics of LAT-detected emission such as its delayed onset and longer duration compared with emission detected by the GBM, its power-law temporal decay at late times, and the fact that it is dominated by a power-law spectral component that appears in addition to the usual Band model. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Harris D.E.,University of Sao Paulo | Massaro F.,University of Sao Paulo | Massaro F.,Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology | Cheung C.C.,National Academy of science | And 13 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

We describe a Chandra X-ray target-of-opportunity project designed to isolate the site of TeV flaring in the radio galaxy M87. To date, we have triggered the Chandra observations only once (2010 April) and by the time of the first of our nine observations, the TeV flare had ended. However, we found that the X-ray intensity of the unresolved nucleus was at an elevated level for our first observation. Of the more than 60 Chandra observations we have made of the M87 jet covering nine years, the nucleus was measured at a comparably high level only three times. Two of these occasions can be associated with TeV flaring, and at the time of the third event, there were no TeV monitoring activities. From the rapidity of the intensity drop of the nucleus, we infer that the size of the emitting region is of order a few light days × the unknown beaming factor; comparable to the same sort of estimate for the TeV emitting region. We also find evidence of spectral evolution in the X-ray band which seems consistent with radiative losses affecting the non-thermal population of the emitting electrons within the unresolved nucleus. © 2011 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Acero F.,University Paris Diderot | Ackermann M.,German Electron Synchrotron | Ajello M.,Clemson University | Albert A.,Stanford University | And 214 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2015

We present the third Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) source catalog (3FGL) of sources in the 100 MeV-300 GeV range. Based on the first 4 yr of science data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission, it is the deepest yet in this energy range. Relative to the Second Fermi LAT catalog, the 3FGL catalog incorporates twice as much data, as well as a number of analysis improvements, including improved calibrations at the event reconstruction level, an updated model for Galactic diffuse γ-ray emission, a refined procedure for source detection, and improved methods for associating LAT sources with potential counterparts at other wavelengths. The 3FGL catalog includes 3033 sources above significance, with source location regions, spectral properties, and monthly light curves for each. Of these, 78 are flagged as potentially being due to imperfections in the model for Galactic diffuse emission. Twenty-five sources are modeled explicitly as spatially extended, and overall 238 sources are considered as identified based on angular extent or correlated variability (periodic or otherwise) observed at other wavelengths. For 1010 sources we have not found plausible counterparts at other wavelengths. More than 1100 of the identified or associated sources are active galaxies of the blazar class; several other classes of non-blazar active galaxies are also represented in the 3FGL. Pulsars represent the largest Galactic source class. From source counts of Galactic sources we estimate that the contribution of unresolved sources to the Galactic diffuse emission is ∼3% at 1 GeV. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..


Giroletti M.,National institute for astrophysics | Hada K.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies | Hada K.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | Giovannini G.,National institute for astrophysics | And 10 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Aims. We aim to constrain the structural variations within the HST-1 region downstream of the radio jet of M 87, in general as well as in connection to the episodes of activity at very high energy (VHE). Methods. We analyzed and compared 26 VLBI observations of the M 87 jet, obtained between 2006 and 2011 with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 1.7 GHz and the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 5 GHz. Results. HST-1 is detected at all epochs; we model-fitted its complex structure with two or more components, the two outermost of which display a significant proper motion with a superluminal velocity around ∼4 c. The motion of a third feature that is detected upstream is more difficult to characterize. The overall position angle of HST-1 has changed during the time of our observations from-65° to-90°, while the structure has moved by over 80 mas downstream. Our results on the component evolution suggest that structural changes at the upstream edge of HST-1 can be related to the VHE events. © 2012 ESO.


McConville W.,NASA | McConville W.,University of Maryland University College | Ostorero L.,University of Turin | Ostorero L.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | And 22 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

We report Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations and broadband spectral modeling of the radio-loud active galaxy 4C+55.17 (z = 0.896), formally classified as a flat-spectrum radio quasar. Using 19 months of all-sky survey Fermi-LAT data, we detect a γ-ray continuum extending up to an observed energy of 145GeV, and furthermore we find no evidence of γ-ray variability in the source over its observed history. We illustrate the implications of these results in two different domains. First, we investigate the origin of the steady γ-ray emission, where we re-examine the common classification of 4C+55.17 as a quasar-hosted blazar and consider instead its possible nature as a young radio source. We analyze and compare constraints on the source physical parameters in both blazar and young radio source scenarios by means of a detailed multiwavelength analysis and theoretical modeling of its broadband spectrum. Second, we show that the γ-ray spectrum may be formally extrapolated into the very high energy (VHE, ≥100GeV) range at a flux level detectable by the current generation of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. This enables us to place constraints on models of extragalactic background light within LAT energies and features the source as a promising candidate for VHE studies of the universe at an unprecedented redshift of z = 0.896. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Pletsch H.J.,Albert Einstein Institute | Pletsch H.J.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Guillemot L.,Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy | Allen B.,Albert Einstein Institute | And 40 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We report the discovery of nine previously unknown gamma-ray pulsars in a blind search of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The pulsars were found with a novel hierarchical search method originally developed for detecting continuous gravitational waves from rapidly rotating neutron stars. Designed to find isolated pulsars spinning at up to kHz frequencies, the new method is computationally efficient and incorporates several advances, including a metric-based gridding of the search parameter space (frequency, frequency derivative, and sky location) and the use of photon probability weights. The nine pulsars have spin frequencies between 3 and 12Hz, and characteristic ages ranging from 17kyr to 3Myr. Two of them, PSRs J1803-2149 and J2111+ 4606, are young and energetic Galactic-plane pulsars (spin-down power above 6 × 1035ergs-1 and ages below 100kyr). The seven remaining pulsars, PSRs J0106+4855, J0622+3749, J1620-4927, J1746-3239, J2028+3332, J2030+4415, and J2139+4716, are older and less energetic; two of them are located at higher Galactic latitudes (|b| > 10°). PSR J0106+4855 has the largest characteristic age (3Myr) and the smallest surface magnetic field (2 × 1011G) of all LAT blind-search pulsars. PSR J2139+4716 has the lowest spin-down power (3 × 1033ergs-1) among all non-recycled gamma-ray pulsars ever found. Despite extensive multi-frequency observations, only PSR J0106+4855 has detectable pulsations in the radio band. The other eight pulsars belong to the increasing population of radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars. © 2012 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Corbel S.,University Paris Diderot | Corbel S.,Institut Universitaire de France | Dubus G.,CNRS Grenoble Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Laboratory | Tomsick J.A.,University of California at Berkeley | And 19 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2012

With frequent flaring activity of its relativistic jets, Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) is one of the most active microquasars and is the only Galactic black hole candidate with confirmed high-energy γ-ray emission, thanks to detections by Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT) and AGILE. In 2011, Cyg X-3 was observed to transit to a soft X-ray state, which is known to be associated with high-energy γ-ray emission. We present the results of a multiwavelength campaign covering a quenched state, when radio emission from Cyg X-3 is at its weakest and the X-ray spectrum is very soft. A giant (∼20Jy) optically thin radio flare marks the end of the quenched state, accompanied by rising non-thermal hard X-rays. Fermi/LAT observations (E≥ 100 MeV) reveal renewed γ-ray activity associated with this giant radio flare, suggesting a common origin for all non-thermal components. In addition, current observations unambiguously show that the γ-ray emission is not exclusively related to the rare giant radio flares. A three-week period of γ-ray emission is also detected when Cyg X-3 was weakly flaring in radio, right before transition to the radio quenched state. No γ-rays are observed during the ∼1-month long quenched state, when the radio flux is weakest. Our results suggest transitions into and out of the ultrasoft X-ray (radio-quenched) state trigger γ-ray emission, implying a connection to the accretion process, and also that the γ-ray activity is related to the level of radio flux (and possibly shock formation), strengthening the connection to the relativistic jets. © 2012 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2012 RAS.


Camilo F.,Columbia University | Kerr M.,Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology | Ray P.S.,U.S. Navy | Ransom S.M.,U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory | And 17 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

In a radio search with the Green Bank Telescope of three unidentified low Galactic latitude Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources, we have discovered the middle-aged pulsar J2030+3641 associated with 1FGLJ2030.0+3641 (2FGL J2030.0+3640). Following the detection of gamma-ray pulsations using a radio ephemeris, we have obtained a phase-coherent timing solution based on gamma-ray and radio pulse arrival times which spans the entire Fermi mission. With a rotation period of 0.2s, a spin-down luminosity of 3 × 10 34ergs-1, and a characteristic age of 0.5Myr, PSRJ2030+3641 is a middle-aged neutron star with spin parameters similar to those of the exceedingly gamma-ray-bright and radio-undetected Geminga. Its gamma-ray flux is 1% that of Geminga, primarily because of its much larger distance, as suggested by the large integrated column density of free electrons, DM = 246pccm-3. We fit the gamma-ray light curve, along with limited radio polarimetric constraints, to four geometrical models of magnetospheric emission, and while none of the fits have high significance some are encouraging and suggest that further refinements of these models may be worthwhile. We argue that not many more non-millisecond radio pulsars may be detected along the Galactic plane that are responsible for LAT sources, but that modified methods to search for gamma-ray pulsations should be productive - PSRJ2030+3641 would have been found blindly in gamma rays if only ≳ 0.8GeV photons had been considered, owing to its relatively flat spectrum and location in a region of high soft background. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Weisskopf M.C.,NASA | Tennant A.F.,NASA | Arons J.,University of California at Berkeley | Blandford R.,Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology | And 25 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

We present results from our analysis of Chandra X-Ray Observatory, W. M. Keck Observatory, and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) images of the Crab Nebula that were contemporaneous with the γ-ray flare of 2011 April. Despite hints in the X-ray data, we find no evidence for statistically significant variations that pinpoint the specific location of the flares within the Nebula. The Keck observations extend this conclusion to the "inner knot," i.e., the feature within an arcsecond of the pulsar. The VLA observations support this conclusion. We also discuss theoretical implications of the γ-ray flares and suggest that the most dramatic γ-ray flares are due to radiation-reaction-limited synchrotron emission associated with sudden, dissipative changes in the current system sustained by the central pulsar. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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