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Vanhoof R.,National Reference Center for Salmonella and Shigella | Gillis P.,Dienst Kinder en jeugdgeneeskunde | Stevart O.,Free University of Colombia | Boland C.,National Reference Center for Salmonella and Shigella | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Since 2004, an increasing number of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serovar Concord infections have been isolated in Belgium among children adopted from Ethiopia. The patients or their family were interviewed and the isolates were subtyped. Between 2004 and 2009, a total of 39 Salmonella Concord infections were isolated from patients. Thirty-four isolates presented a multidrug resistance including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Thirty-six cases involved children and 30 of these were adopted from Ethiopia. One case was due to contact with an adopted child and for the other 5 cases no direct epidemiological link with Ethiopia could be found, although four isolates displayed the same patterns observed on the adoptees' isolates, strongly suggesting a phylogenetic relationship with the Ethiopian isolates. Our study confirmed the emergence in Europe of S. Concord isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporin among Ethiopian adoptees. We have demonstrated that transmission (intra- and extra familial) can happen even if the frequency seems to be low. The presence and the transmission of such a multidrug-resistant Salmonella infection constitute a major concern, since such strains could jeopardize classical antibiotic therapy in patients at risk. This study provides useful information for parents adopting children and for their family practitioner. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

Antonio-Nkondjio C.,Laboratoire Of Recherche Sur Le Paludisme | Antonio-Nkondjio C.,Vector Group | Antonio-Nkondjio C.,University of Bamenda | Demanou M.,Service Of Virologie Center Pasteur Cameroun | And 4 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: Insecticide treated materials remain the mainstay for malaria prevention. The current study reports on the entomological impact of cyfluthrin impregnated bed nets on malaria transmission in Mbandjock, a semi urban locality in southern Cameroon. Several findings pertaining to the recent distribution of LLINs across Cameroon are discussed. Methods. Malaria transmission and vector bionomics were monitored before and after impregnated net coverage. Bed nets were distributed in Mbandjock, whereas the locality of Nkoteng was free of bed nets during the entire study period. January to June 1997 represented the period before bed net coverage and September 1997 to September 1998 was the period after bed net coverage. Adult mosquitoes were collected by human landing catches. Mosquito genus and species were identified with morphological and molecular diagnostic tools. Anopheline salivary glands and ovaries were dissected to determine female infectious status and parity rates respectively. Results: A total of 6959 anophelines corresponding to 6029 in Mbandjock and 930 in Nkoteng were collected in the course of the study. Seven species were recorded in both cities: Anopheles coustani, An. funestus, An. gambiae sl, An. moucheti, An. ziemanni, An. nili and An. paludis. An. gambiae s.l. (>95% An. gambiae S molecular form) was the most abundant species representing 75.6% and 86.6% of the total anophelines caught in Mbandjock before and after bed net coverage respectively. The human biting rate (HBR) in Mbandjock decreased from 17 bites/human/night before bed net coverage to less than 4 bites/human/night during the first 7 months following impregnated bed net coverage. A significant decrease of mosquito parity rate was recorded when comparing the period before (52%) and after (46.5%) bed net distribution. The average infection rate of malaria vectors significantly decreased from 5.3% before to 1.8% after bed net coverage (p < 0.0001). The entomological inoculation rate in Mbandjock was reduced by 74% varying from 124.1 infected bites/human/year before bed net distribution, to 32.5 infected bites/human/year after bed net coverage. All entomological indexes were relatively stable in Nkoteng and no reduction of malaria transmission was recorded in this locality. Conclusion: The study confirms the effectiveness of cyfluthrin impregnated nets in reducing malaria transmission. Lessons from this study could be essential to draw guidelines for the management of the recent nationwide distribution of LLINs across Cameroon in 2011. © 2013 Antonio-Nkondjio et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Bertrand S.,Scientific Institute of Public Health | Van Meervenne E.,Scientific Institute of Public Health | De Baere T.,Scientific Institute of Public Health | Vanhoof R.,Scientific Institute of Public Health | And 5 more authors.
Microbes and Infection | Year: 2011

From 2006 to December 2009, 45 out of the 513 strains isolated from patients with invasive meningococcal disease in Belgium, were identified as Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, non-serotypeable, subtype P1.14 (B:NT:P1.14). Most cases were geographically clustered in the northern part of the country. Multilocus Sequence Typing and antigen gene sequencing combined with Pulsed-Field Gel electrophoresis were used to investigate this cluster. Molecular typing showed that 39 out of these 45 N. meningitidis strains belonged to the clonal complex cc-269. The presence of the same PorA Variable Regions (VR1-VR2: 22, 14), the FetA allele (F5-1) and the highly similar Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles, supported genetic relatedness for 38 out of these 39 isolates. Retrospective analysis of B:NT:P1.22,14 isolates from 1999 onwards suggested that these strains belonging to the cc-269 complex, first emerged in the Belgian province of West-Flanders in 2004. This study showed that the combination of molecular tools with classical methods enabled reliable outbreak detection as well as a cluster identification. © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Source

Francois-Souquiere S.,Center International Of Recherches Medicales Of Franceville | Makuwa M.,Center International Of Recherches Medicales Of Franceville | Bisvigou U.,Center International Of Recherches Medicales Of Franceville | Kazanji M.,Center International Of Recherches Medicales Of Franceville | Kazanji M.,Reseau International des Institute Pasteur
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2016

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) occur worldwide and are prevalent in both urban and remote rural communities. In a remote village in Gabon, central Africa, we observed a high prevalence of HBsAg carriage and HDV infection, particularly in children and adolescents. The prevalence of HBsAg differed significantly by gender and age, females being more likely than males to carry the HBsAg during the first 10. years of life, while the prevalence was higher among males than females aged 11-20. years. We also characterised HBV and HDV strains circulating in the village. The principal HBV strains belonged to genotype HBV-E and subgenotype QS-A3. Complete genome analysis revealed for the first time the presence of the HBV-D genotype in Gabon, in the form of an HBV-D/E recombinant. Molecular analysis of HDV strains and their complete genomic characterisation revealed two distinct groups within the dominant HDV clade 8. Molecular analysis of HBV and HDV strains did not reveal vertical transmission within the families studied but rather horizontal, intrafamilial transmission among children aged 0-10. years. Our findings indicate that HBV is transmitted in early childhood by body fluids rather than by sexual contact. Health education adapted to the different age groups might therefore help to reduce HBV transmission. Young children should be vaccinated to control HBV infection in areas of extremely high prevalence. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Mainassara H.B.,Reseau International des Institute Pasteur | Molinari N.,Nimes University Hospital Center | Molinari N.,Montpellier SupAgro | Demattei C.,Nimes University Hospital Center | And 2 more authors.
Geospatial Health | Year: 2010

Meningococcal disease is a major public health concern in Sahelian Africa, where over half of the cases reported worldwide occur. In an effort to find annual spatial clusters of meningococcal disease and in order to study their evolution in Niger from January 2002 to June 2008, a prospective study of routine national surveillance data was conducted pertaining to patients with suspected bacterial meningitis. The diagnoses were obtained by analysing patients' cerebrospinal fluid, using polymerase chain reaction or bacteriology. SatScan using Poisson's model was used to calculate the relative risk (RR) of occurrence of spatial clusters. In the 2002-2003 period, 15 spatial clusters of meningococcal meningitis were detected in a total of 3,979 cases with a maximum number of 558 cases per cluster in the south-eastern part of the country (70.5% of all cases that year; RR = 7.85; P <0.001). Other clusters were found in the following years in approximately the same area as those detected in 2002-2003. These clusters were identified in the southeast, which allowed us to identify high-risk groups in this part of the country. Statistically significant spatio-temporal patterns were found, which should be useful in establishing hypotheses for prospective studies on epidemic tendencies and empirical risk factors in the African meningitis belt. Source

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