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Ranasinghe W.K.B.,Austin Hospital | Sibanda T.,Kingston Hospital NHS Trust | De Silva M.V.C.,University of Sfax | Ranasinghe T.I.J.,Researcher | Persad R.,Royal Infirmary
BJU International | Year: 2011

Study Type - Prevalence (retrospective cohort) Level of Evidence 2b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The incidence of prostate cancer in South Asia is low but the incidence of prostate cancer is Sri Lanka is unknown. This study examines the latter and compares these rates to migrant South Asian population to the UK and attempts to examine reasons for the differences. OBJECTIVE • To investigate the incidence of carcinoma of the prostate (CaP) in Sri Lanka and compare the rates with the migrant population in the UK. METHODS • The Sri Lanka cancer registry data were used to determine the rates of CaP in Sri Lanka from 2001 to 2005. • The incidence of CaP in 8 426 000 men, aged ≥30 years, was analysed using 5-year age bands and age-standardized rates were calculated using European standard population data. • The relative risk was calculated by comparison with the South Asian migrant population in the UK using the Prostate Cancer in Ethnic Subgroups (PROCESS) study data, a population-based retrospective cohort study of 2140 men carried out over a 5-year period in four predefined areas of southern England. • Data from incidental findings of CaP in Sri Lanka on transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) specimens were also analysed. RESULTS • In all, 1378 new cases of CaP were diagnosed during the 5-year period with a mean age of 69.2 years at diagnosis. • Compared with the previous 5 years, the incidence of CaP had doubled to 5.7 per 100 000, but was significantly lower than in the PROCESS study (relative risk 0.25). • Districts with a higher population density had higher adjusted rates of CaP in Sri Lanka (5.8-12.4 per 100 000). • For TURP specimens, 16.8-18.75% had incidental diagnoses of CaP in Sri Lanka, higher than other published studies. CONCLUSIONS • The Sri Lankan cancer registry data showed a low rate of CaP, similar to other South Asian countries, but the actual incidence of CaP in Sri Lanka is probably higher than reported, as seen in the densely populated districts and the high rate of incidental diagnosis of CaP in TURP specimens. • The incidence of CaP in migrant South Asians in the UK was much higher than in Sri Lanka. • Further studies are required to examine the environmental and genetic components which may be responsible for the low incidence of CaP in Sri Lanka. © 2011 BJU Internationl.

Reviriego E.,Researcher | Cidoncha M.A.,Basque Health Service Osakidetza | Asua J.,Head of Basque Office for Health Technology Assessment | Gagnon M.P.,Laval University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Medical Education | Year: 2014

Background: Research is an essential activity for improving quality and efficiency in healthcare. The objective of this study was to train nurses from the public Basque Health Service (Osakidetza) in critical appraisal, promoting continuous training and the use of research in clinical practice. Methods. This was a prospective pre-post test study. The InfoCritique course on critical appraisal was translated and adapted. A sample of 50 nurses and 3 tutors was recruited. Educational strategies and assessment instruments were established for the course. A course website was created that contained contact details of the teaching team and coordinator, as well as a course handbook and videos introducing the course. Assessment comprised the administration of questionnaires before and after the course, in order to explore the main intervention outcomes: knowledge acquired and self-learning readiness. Satisfaction was also measured at the end of the course. Results: Of the 50 health professionals recruited, 3 did not complete the course for personal or work-related reasons. The mean score on the pre-course knowledge questionnaire was 70.5 out of 100, with a standard deviation of 11.96. In general, participants' performance on the knowledge questionnaire improved after the course, as reflected in the notable increase of the mean score, to 86.6, with a standard deviation of 10.00. Further, analyses confirmed statistically significant differences between pre- and post-course results (p < 0.001). With regard to self-learning readiness, after the course, participants reported a greater readiness and ability for self-directed learning. Lastly, in terms of level of satisfaction with the course, the mean score was 7 out of 10. Conclusions: Participants significantly improved their knowledge score and self-directed learning readiness after the educational intervention, and they were overall satisfied with the course. For the health system and nursing professionals, this type of course has the potential to provide methodological tools for research, promote a research culture, and encourage critical thinking for evidence-based decision making. © 2014 Reviriego et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | Researcher, University of Murcia, Guarulhos University, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul and Federal University of Santa Maria
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of prosthetic dentistry | Year: 2016

Esthetic factors influence the decision to use titanium or zirconia abutments in anterior regions. Clinicians may have concerns about the durability and behavior of these zirconia abutments.The purpose of this invitro study was to evaluate the longitudinal and transverse long axes of the implant-abutment interface before and after the cyclic loading of titanium and zirconia abutments with an external hexagon.Forty dental implants with an external hexagon and 40 corresponding abutments made of titanium (Ti) and zirconia (Zr) were subjected to cyclic load (c1) versus no load (c2). The longitudinal and transverse axes of 4 experimental groups (Tic1, Tic2, Zrc1, and Zrc2) were analyzed (vertical/horizontal adjustment) using a scanning electron microscope at1000 magnification. The differences among the groups were determined by 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey tests (=.05). T tests were used to identify the statistically significant differences between each group and each condition (=.05).Significant differences were found among the groups with respect to the misfits analyzed in the 2 sections (longitudinal and transverse) before and after load application (P<.05). The behaviors of the groups differed particularly with regard to the accommodation of sets (abutment/implant) after the application of cyclic loads (P<.05).The use of zirconia abutments in titanium implants can cause changes to and/or permanent deformation of the implant hexagon.

Zuffa G.,Forum Droghe | Ronconi S.,Researcher
Epidemiology Biostatistics and Public Health | Year: 2015

A significant body of research on cocaine users recruited outside the “captive” populations (i.e. studies from samples of users who have not been enrolled through drug addiction services) has been carried out in many European countries and outside Europe. These studies show a variety of patterns and trajectories of use other than “addictive” use. The reason of most “controlled” use lies in a wide set of self-regulation “rules” users “naturally” apply to keep drug use at bay and prevent the disruption of everyday life. Not only is this perspective at odds with the “pathological” perspective of professionals, focused as this is on “addiction” originated from the chemical properties of drugs and individual psychological deficit; it also challenges the social representation of drugs as intrinsically “out of control” substances and of drug users’ helplessness under the influence of drugs. The paper describes the workstream Innovative cocaine and poly-drug abuse prevention programme, developed in 2013 by the Italian NGO Forum Droghe within the European project New Approaches in Drug Policy &Interventions (NADPI), aimed at linking findings from research on “controls” to operational models in drug addiction services. Through a critical overview of the disease model and taking cues from users’ self regulation strategies, a new “self regulation” operational model has been developed, focused on users’ control abilities; and on social context and setting of use, following the drug/set/setting paradigm. The self regulation model may be seen as a development of the Harm Reduction approach to drug policies, aimed at decreasing the negative consequences of drug use without necessarily reducing the consumption of drugs. © 2015 Epidemiology Biostatistics and Public Health. All Rights Reserved.

Amirnia M.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences | Khodaeiani E.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences | Fouladi R.F.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences | Hashemi A.,Researcher
Journal of Dermatological Treatment | Year: 2012

Background: Psoriasis is a common chronic disease. It is estimated that between US$$1.6 billion and US$$3.2 billion is spent per year to treat psoriasis. Objective: To compare psoralen plus UV-A (PUVA) therapy with topical steroids in moderate plaque psoriasis. Methods: In this randomized, clinical trial with cost analysis, 88 patients with moderate plaque psoriasis were recruited in two equal groups to receive either PUVA therapy or topical steroids. The induction phase was applied for 4 months and the patients were followed-up for another 3 months, while the maintenance therapy continued. Outcome, direct cost (related to medications, phototherapy, laboratory tests, and medical consultation), indirect cost (related to transportation and other extra expenditures) and total cost (direct plus indirect costs) were compared between the two groups. Results: The outcome was equally satisfactory in both groups. The indirect cost was significantly higher in the PUVA group, while the direct and total costs as well as the patients' satisfaction rate were comparable. Recurrence was significantly more frequent in the topical group. Conclusion: Although both PUVA therapy and topical steroids are equally efficient and cost-effective in moderate plaque psoriasis, the recurrence rate is higher in the latter group. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA on behalf of Informa UK Ltd.

PubMed | Researcher and Federal University of Ceará
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta cirurgica brasileira | Year: 2017

To evaluate the effects of L-lysine on the intestinal and urothelial epithelium of rats subjected to ureterosigmoidostomy (new model for surgical carcinogenesis).Forty-two rats, 9 weeks of age, were divided into 6 groups. Animals in groups A, B, C were subjected to ureterosigmoidostomy (US) and treated with L-lysine, celecoxib and H2O, respectively. Groups D, E and F (non-operated controls) received L-lysine, celecoxib and H2O, respectively. The L-lysine dose was 150 mg/kg and that of celecoxib was 20 mg/kg. The colon was analyzed for the presence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) under a stereomicroscope.The tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and PAS alcian blue.There were rare ACF, and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Histopathologic study of the ureteral epithelium identified moderate to severe urothelial hyperplasia in rats with ureterosigmoidostomy. Transitional hyperplasia in the ureters of animals receiving L-lysine (A) showed an apparent difference compared to the control (C) (P=0.2424). There was no dysplasia or atypia.L-lysine does not promote carcinogenesis of the intestinal and urethelial epithelium of rats subjected to ureterosigmoidostomy at the doses and times studied.

Penas Defago M.A.,Researcher | Moran Faundes J.M.,CONICET
Reproductive Health Matters | Year: 2014

In Argentina, campaigns for the recognition of sexual and reproductive rights have sparked opposition through litigation in which the dynamics of legal action have come from self-proclaimed "pro-life" NGOs, particularly since 1998, when the conservative NGO Portal de Belén successfully achieved the banning of emergency contraception through the courts. The activities of these groups, acting as a "civil arm" of religion, are focused primarily on obstructing access to legally permissible abortions and bringing about the withdrawal of a number of recognized public policies on sexual and reproductive health, particularly the 2002 National Programme for Sexual Health and Responsible Procreation. This paper analyzes the litigation strategies of these conservative NGOs and how their use of the courts in Argentina has changed over the years. It gives examples of efforts in local courts to block individual young women from accessing legal abortion following rape, despite a ruling by the National Supreme Court of Justice in 2012 that no judicial permission is required. In spite of major advances, the renewed influence of the Catholic hierarchy in the Argentine political scene with the accession of the new Pope poses challenges to the work by feminists and women's movements to extend and consolidate sexual and reproductive rights. © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters.

Watson A.H.,Researcher | Poima R.,Manager Inc.
Australasian psychiatry : bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE: The paper reports on the establishment of Papua New Guinea's first ever health call centre.METHOD: Details of the phone calls received during the first nine weeks of the call centre's operation are presented.RESULTS: The data on phone call rates and types indicate a slight increase in utilisation of the service over the initial period. A total of 113 health-related phone calls were received during the first nine weeks of the call centre's operation. Most of these calls were from the public, while a small number were from rural health workers. Prank calls and calls enquiring about the service were also received. During establishment, mental health was not considered and calls that may fall into this category have not been logged separately.CONCLUSIONS: Further analysis would need to be undertaken to determine the effectiveness of the health call centre model in the Papua New Guinea context. Scripts, protocols and analysis regarding mental health may need to be developed. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

Beukers J.T.,Technical University of Delft | Stroosma O.,Technical University of Delft | Stroosma O.,Researcher | Pool D.M.,Technical University of Delft | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics | Year: 2010

Anexperiment was conducted in theSIMONAResearch Simulator at Delft University of Technology to investigate the influence of sway, roll, and yaw motion cues on pilot performance, control, and motion perception during decrab maneuvers. In the experiment, six pilots were instructed to perform manual decrab maneuvers in heavy crosswind conditions with a Cessna Citation 500 model. The contributions of yaw, roll, and sway motion stimuli were varied such that their effects on objective measures and subjective ratings could be examined. The results of this experiment show that yaw motion had a positive influence on performance in terms of lateral touchdown distance from the runway centerline. Roll motion significantly decreased roll rate variations during decrab. High workload and the relatively low intensity of lateral motion cues led to the fact that pilots were unable to give consistent fidelity ratings. This result emphasizes the need for an objective and quantifiable method to determine motion fidelity for such maneuvers. Pilot models can possibly be used to further investigate the influence of different motion cues in these transient control tasks. © 2010 by Delft University of Technology.

Pradnya P.M.,Researcher | Sachin D.R.,Sinhgad Acadmy of Engg.
2013 International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Signal Processing, ISSP 2013 | Year: 2013

The fusion of images is the process of combining two or more images into a single image retaining important features from each. Fusion is an important technique within many disparate fields such as remote sensing, robotics and medical applications. The result of image fusion is a single image which is more suitable for human and machine perception or further image-processing tasks. The image fusion algorithm based on wavelet transform is proposed to prove the geometric resolution of the images, in which two images to be processed are firstly decomposed into sub images and then the information is performed using these images under the certain criteria and finally these sub images are reconstructed into result image with plentiful information. In this paper three different image fusion methods based wavelet transform are implemented. And the results are compared and best method is found. © 2013 IEEE.

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