Time filter

Source Type

Casswell S.,Director | Harding J.F.,Research Assistant | You R.Q.,Statistician | Huckle T.,Researcher
New Zealand Medical Journal | Year: 2011

Aim There is a lack of research, internationally and in New Zealand, on the harms experienced as a result of drinking by others. Such effects have often been neglected in policy development and in estimates of the economic burden associated with alcohol consumption. This study describes the broad range of harms reported by New Zealanders due to the drinking of someone else. Method A representative national survey was conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing with New Zealanders aged 12 to 80 years (N=3068) in 2008/2009 (response rate - 64%). Harms experienced due to the drinking of others were reported along with demographic variables. Results One in four respondents indicated that they had at least one heavy drinker in their life. Most of these respondents indicated they had experienced a range of harms because of this person's drinking. Further, 17% of respondents with children reported that their children experienced harm because of the drinking of someone else. Seventy-one percent of those sampled reported experiencing at least one harm because of the drinking of a stranger. Conclusion A large proportion of New Zealanders report the experience of physical, social, economic, and psychological harms because of the drinking of others. These harms should be considered in the discussion of alcohol policy.© NZMA. Source

Papadopoulou M.,Researcher | Papadopoulou M.,National University of Singapore | Raphael B.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Smith I.F.C.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Sekhar C.,National University of Singapore
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering | Year: 2016

Warm climates pose challenges to building energy consumption and pedestrian comfort. Knowledge of the wind flow around buildings can help address these issues through improving natural ventilation, energy use, and outdoor thermal comfort. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are widely used to predict wind flow around buildings, despite the large discrepancies that often occur between model predictions and actual measurements. Wind speed and direction exhibit a high degree of variability that adds uncertainties in modeling and measurements. Although some studies focus on methods to evaluate and minimize modeling uncertainties, sensor placement has been mostly based on subjective judgment and intuition; no systematic methodology is available to identify optimal sensor locations prior to field measurement. This work proposes a methodology for systematic sensor placement for situations when no measurement data are available and knowledge of the wind environment around buildings is limited. Sequential sensor placement algorithms and criteria are used to identify sensor configurations based on CFD simulation predictions at plausible locations. Optimal sensor configurations are compared for their ability to improve wind speed predictions at another location where no measurements are taken. The methodology is applied to two full-scale building systems of varying size. Results show that the methodology can be applied prior to field measurement to identify optimal configurations of a limited number of sensors that improve wind speed predictions at unmeasured locations. © 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source

Amirnia M.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences | Khodaeiani E.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences | Fouladi R.F.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences | Hashemi A.,Researcher
Journal of Dermatological Treatment | Year: 2012

Background: Psoriasis is a common chronic disease. It is estimated that between US$$1.6 billion and US$$3.2 billion is spent per year to treat psoriasis. Objective: To compare psoralen plus UV-A (PUVA) therapy with topical steroids in moderate plaque psoriasis. Methods: In this randomized, clinical trial with cost analysis, 88 patients with moderate plaque psoriasis were recruited in two equal groups to receive either PUVA therapy or topical steroids. The induction phase was applied for 4 months and the patients were followed-up for another 3 months, while the maintenance therapy continued. Outcome, direct cost (related to medications, phototherapy, laboratory tests, and medical consultation), indirect cost (related to transportation and other extra expenditures) and total cost (direct plus indirect costs) were compared between the two groups. Results: The outcome was equally satisfactory in both groups. The indirect cost was significantly higher in the PUVA group, while the direct and total costs as well as the patients' satisfaction rate were comparable. Recurrence was significantly more frequent in the topical group. Conclusion: Although both PUVA therapy and topical steroids are equally efficient and cost-effective in moderate plaque psoriasis, the recurrence rate is higher in the latter group. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA on behalf of Informa UK Ltd. Source

Ranasinghe W.K.B.,Austin Hospital | Sibanda T.,Kingston Hospital NHS Trust | De Silva M.V.C.,University of Sfax | Ranasinghe T.I.J.,Researcher | Persad R.,Royal Infirmary
BJU International | Year: 2011

Study Type - Prevalence (retrospective cohort) Level of Evidence 2b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The incidence of prostate cancer in South Asia is low but the incidence of prostate cancer is Sri Lanka is unknown. This study examines the latter and compares these rates to migrant South Asian population to the UK and attempts to examine reasons for the differences. OBJECTIVE • To investigate the incidence of carcinoma of the prostate (CaP) in Sri Lanka and compare the rates with the migrant population in the UK. METHODS • The Sri Lanka cancer registry data were used to determine the rates of CaP in Sri Lanka from 2001 to 2005. • The incidence of CaP in 8 426 000 men, aged ≥30 years, was analysed using 5-year age bands and age-standardized rates were calculated using European standard population data. • The relative risk was calculated by comparison with the South Asian migrant population in the UK using the Prostate Cancer in Ethnic Subgroups (PROCESS) study data, a population-based retrospective cohort study of 2140 men carried out over a 5-year period in four predefined areas of southern England. • Data from incidental findings of CaP in Sri Lanka on transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) specimens were also analysed. RESULTS • In all, 1378 new cases of CaP were diagnosed during the 5-year period with a mean age of 69.2 years at diagnosis. • Compared with the previous 5 years, the incidence of CaP had doubled to 5.7 per 100 000, but was significantly lower than in the PROCESS study (relative risk 0.25). • Districts with a higher population density had higher adjusted rates of CaP in Sri Lanka (5.8-12.4 per 100 000). • For TURP specimens, 16.8-18.75% had incidental diagnoses of CaP in Sri Lanka, higher than other published studies. CONCLUSIONS • The Sri Lankan cancer registry data showed a low rate of CaP, similar to other South Asian countries, but the actual incidence of CaP in Sri Lanka is probably higher than reported, as seen in the densely populated districts and the high rate of incidental diagnosis of CaP in TURP specimens. • The incidence of CaP in migrant South Asians in the UK was much higher than in Sri Lanka. • Further studies are required to examine the environmental and genetic components which may be responsible for the low incidence of CaP in Sri Lanka. © 2011 BJU Internationl. Source

Beukers J.T.,Technical University of Delft | Stroosma O.,Technical University of Delft | Stroosma O.,Researcher | Pool D.M.,Technical University of Delft | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics | Year: 2010

Anexperiment was conducted in theSIMONAResearch Simulator at Delft University of Technology to investigate the influence of sway, roll, and yaw motion cues on pilot performance, control, and motion perception during decrab maneuvers. In the experiment, six pilots were instructed to perform manual decrab maneuvers in heavy crosswind conditions with a Cessna Citation 500 model. The contributions of yaw, roll, and sway motion stimuli were varied such that their effects on objective measures and subjective ratings could be examined. The results of this experiment show that yaw motion had a positive influence on performance in terms of lateral touchdown distance from the runway centerline. Roll motion significantly decreased roll rate variations during decrab. High workload and the relatively low intensity of lateral motion cues led to the fact that pilots were unable to give consistent fidelity ratings. This result emphasizes the need for an objective and quantifiable method to determine motion fidelity for such maneuvers. Pilot models can possibly be used to further investigate the influence of different motion cues in these transient control tasks. © 2010 by Delft University of Technology. Source

Discover hidden collaborations