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Awad M.M.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Awad M.M.,Harvard University | Oxnard G.R.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Oxnard G.R.,Harvard University | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology

Purpose: Non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) harboring mutations in MET exon 14 and its flanking introns may respond to c-Met inhibitors. We sought to describe the clinical, pathologic, and genomic characteristics of patients with cancer with MET exon 14 mutations. Patients and Methods: We interrogated next-generation sequencing results from 6,376 cancers to identify those harboring MET exon 14 mutations. Clinical characteristics of MET exon 14 mutated NSCLCs were compared with those of NSCLCs with activating mutations in KRAS and EGFR. Co-occurring genomic mutations and copy number alterations were identified. c-Met immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect exon 14 skipping were performed where sufficient tissue was available. Results: MET exon 14 mutations were identified in 28 of 933 nonsquamous NSCLCs (3.0%) and were not seen in other cancer types in this study. Patients with MET exon 14-mutated NSCLC were significantly older (median age, 72.5 years) than patients with EGFR-mutant (median age, 61 years; P <.001) or KRAS-mutant NSCLC (median age, 65 years; P <.001). Among patients with MET exon 14 mutations, 68% were women, and 36% were never-smokers. Stage IV MET exon 14-mutated NSCLCs were significantly more likely to have concurrent MET genomic amplification (mean ratio of MET to chromosome 7, 4.3) and strong c-Met immunohistochemical expression (mean H score, 253) than stage IA to IIIB MET exon 14-mutated NSCLCs (mean ratio of MET to chromosome 7, 1.4; P=.007; mean H score, 155; P=.002) and stage IV MET exon 14-wild-type NSCLCs (mean ratio of MET to chromosome 7, 1.2; P <.001; mean H score, 142; P <.001). A patient whose lung cancer harbored a MET exon 14 mutation with concurrent genomic amplification of the mutated MET allele experienced a major partial response to the c-Met inhibitor crizotinib. Conclusion: MET exon 14 mutations represent a clinically unique molecular subtype of NSCLC. Prospective clinical trials with c-Met inhibitors will be necessary to validate MET exon 14 mutations as an important therapeutic target in NSCLC. © 2016 American Society of Clinical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

Moore M.W.,ResearchDx | Babu D.,University of Alberta | Cotter P.D.,ResearchDx
Personalized Medicine

Therapeutics harnessing the power of personalized medicine have the potential to revolutionize healthcare. Companion diagnostics are critical to this goal and are increasingly relied upon to ensure the effective, safe development and use of a personalized therapeutic. Companion diagnostics are the focus of several recent regulatory guidance documents; the drug-diagnostic codevelopment process has become increasingly relevant and necessary. Despite this, the promise of companion diagnostics has not been fully realized and there are multiple difficulties that still need resolution. The path to codevelop a successful companion diagnostic with its complementary drug is complex, fragmented and fraught with several challenges. In this article, we discuss the logistic, strategic business, regulatory and financial challenges involved in drug-companion diagnostic codevelopment. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd. Source

Phin S.,ResearchDx | Moore M.W.,ResearchDx | Cotter P.D.,ResearchDx | Cotter P.D.,University of California at San Francisco
Frontiers in Oncology

The phosphatase and tensin homolog gene (PTEN) on chromosome 10q23.3 is a negative regulator of the PIK3/Akt survival pathway and is the most frequently deleted tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. Monoallelic loss of PTEN is present in up to 60% of localized prostate cancers and complete loss of PTEN in prostate cancer is linked to metastasis and androgen-independent progression. Studies on the genomic status of PTEN in prostate cancer initially used a two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for PTEN copy number detection in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue preparations. More recently, a four-color FISH assay containing two additional control probes flanking the PTEN locus with a lower false-positive rate was reported. Combined with the detection of other critical genomic biomarkers for prostate cancer such as ERG, androgen receptor, and MYC, the evaluation of PTEN genomic status has proven to be invaluable for patient stratification and management. Although less frequent than allelic deletions, point mutations in the gene and epigenetic silencing are also known to contribute to loss of PTEN function, and ultimately to prostate cancer initiation. Overall, it is clear that PTEN is a powerful biomarker for prostate cancer. Used as a companion diagnostic for emerging therapeutic drugs, FISH analysis of PTEN is promisingly moving human prostate cancer closer to more effective cancer management and therapies. © 2013 Phin, Moore and Cotter. Source

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