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Ulloa-Aguirre A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ulloa-Aguirre A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Ulloa-Aguirre A.,University of Tours | Ulloa-Aguirre A.,LE STUDIUM Institute for Advanced Studies | And 13 more authors.
Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

Gonadotropins play a central role in the control of male and female reproduction. Selective agonists and antagonists of gonadotropin receptors would be of great interest for the treatment of infertility or as non steroidal contraceptive. However, to date, only native hormones are being used in assisted reproduction technologies as there is no pharmacological agent available to manipulate gonadotropin receptors. Over the last decade, there has been a growing perception of the complexity associated with gonadotropin receptors' cellular signaling. It is now clear that the Gs/cAMP/PKA pathway is not the sole mechanism that must be taken into account in order to understand these hormones' biological actions. In parallel, consistent with the emerging paradigm of biased agonism, several examples of ligand-mediated selective signaling pathway activation by gonadotropin receptors have been reported. Small molecule ligands, modulating antibodies interacting with the hormones and glycosylation variants of the native glycoproteins have all demonstrated their potential to trigger such selective signaling. Altogether, the available data and emerging concepts give rise to intriguing opportunities towards a more efficient control of reproductive function and associated disorders. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. Source

Ulloa-Aguirre A.,National Health Research Institute | Ulloa-Aguirre A.,Oregon Health And Science University | Zarinan T.,Research Unit in Reproductive Medicine | Dias J.A.,University at Albany | Conn P.M.,Oregon Health And Science University
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large superfamily of integral cell surface plasma membrane proteins that play key roles in transducing extracellular signals, including sensory stimuli, hormones, neurotransmitters, or paracrine factors into the intracellular environment through the activation of one or more heterotrimeric G proteins. Structural alterations provoked by mutations or variations in the genes coding for GPCRs may lead to misfolding, altered plasma membrane expression of the receptor protein and frequently to disease. A number of GPCRs regulate reproductive function at different levels; these receptors include the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) and the gonadotropin receptors (follicle-stimulating hormone receptor and luteinizing hormone receptor), which regulate the function of the pituitary-gonadal axis. Loss-of-function mutations in these receptors may lead to hypogonadotropic or hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, which encompass a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. In this review we describe mutations that provoke misfolding and failure of these receptors to traffick from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. We also discuss some aspects related to the therapeutic potential of some target-specific drugs that selectively bind to and rescue function of misfolded mutant GnRHR and gonadotropin receptors, and that represent potentially valuable strategies to treat diseases caused by inactivating mutations of these receptors. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Dominguez-Lopez P.,Research Unit in Reproductive Medicine | Diaz-Cueto L.,Research Unit in Reproductive Medicine | Olivares A.,Research Unit in Reproductive Medicine | Ulloa-Aguirre A.,National Health Research Institute | Arechavaleta-Velasco F.,Research Unit in Reproductive Medicine
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), 1,1-bis-(chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (DDE), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD) isomers on COX-2 expression in a human trophoblast-derived cell line. Cultured HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells were exposed to DDT isomers and its metabolites for 24 h, and COX-2 mRNA and protein expression were assessed by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA. Prostaglandin E2 production was also measured by ELISA. Both COX-2 mRNA and protein were detected under control (unexposed) conditions in the HTR-8/SVneo cell line. COX-2 protein expression and prostaglandin E2 production but not COX-2 mRNA levels increased only after DDE and DDD isomers exposure. It is concluded that DDE and DDD exposure induce the expression of COX-2 protein, leading to increased prostaglandin E2 production. Interestingly, the regulation of COX-2 by these organochlorines pesticides appears to be at the translational level. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Aguilar-Rojas A.,Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social IMSS | Aguilar-Rojas A.,Research Unit in Reproductive Medicine | Huerta-Reyes M.,Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social IMSS | Maya-Nunez G.,Research Unit in Reproductive Medicine | And 4 more authors.
BMC Cancer

Background: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its receptor (GnRHR) are both expressed by a number of malignant tumors, including those of the breast. In the latter, both behave as potent inhibitors of invasion. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways whereby the activated GnRH/GnRHR system exerts this effect have not been clearly established. In this study, we provide experimental evidence that describes components of the mechanism(s) whereby GnRH inhibits breast cancer cell invasion.Methods: Actin polymerization and substrate adhesion was measured in the highly invasive cell line, MDA-MB-231 transiently expressing the wild-type or mutant DesK191 GnRHR by fluorometry, flow cytometric analysis, and confocal microscopy, in the absence or presence of GnRH agonist. The effect of RhoA-GTP on stress fiber formation and focal adhesion assembly was measured in MDA-MB-231 cells co-expressing the GnRHRs and the GAP domain of human p190Rho GAP-A or the dominant negative mutant GAP-Y1284D. Cell invasion was determined by the transwell migration assay.Results: Agonist-stimulated activation of the wild-type GnRHR and the highly plasma membrane expressed mutant GnRHR-DesK191 transiently transfected to MDA-MB-231 cells, favored F-actin polymerization and substrate adhesion. Confocal imaging allowed detection of an association between F-actin levels and the increase in stress fibers promoted by exposure to GnRH. Pull-down assays showed that the effects observed on actin cytoskeleton resulted from GnRH-stimulated activation of RhoA GTPase. Activation of this small G protein favored the marked increase in both cell adhesion to Collagen-I and number of focal adhesion complexes leading to inhibition of the invasion capacity of MDA-MB-231 cells as disclosed by assays in Transwell Chambers.Conclusions: We here show that GnRH inhibits invasion of highly invasive breast cancer-derived MDA-MB-231 cells. This effect is mediated through an increase in substrate adhesion promoted by activation of RhoA GTPase and formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions. These observations offer new insights into the molecular mechanisms whereby activation of overexpressed GnRHRs affects cell invasion potential of this malignant cell line, and provide opportunities for designing mechanism-based adjuvant therapies for breast cancer. © 2012 Aguilar-Rojas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Olivares A.,Research Unit in Reproductive Medicine | Mendez J.P.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Zambrano E.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Sz | Cardenas M.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Sz | And 3 more authors.
General and Comparative Endocrinology

Obesity causes complex metabolic and endocrine changes that may lead to adverse outcomes, including hypogonadism. We herein studied the reproductive axis function in male rats under a high-fat diet and analyzed the impact of changes in glycosylation of pituitary LH on the bioactivity of this gonadotropin. Rats were fed with a diet enriched in saturated fat (20% of total calories) and euthanized on days 90 or 180 of diet. Long-term (180 days), high-fat feeding rats exhibited a metabolic profile compatible with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome; they concomitantly showed decreased intrapituitary and serum LH concentrations, low serum testosterone levels, and elevated serum 17β-estradiol concentrations. A fall in biological to immunological ratio of intrapituitary LH was detected in 180 days control diet-treated rats but not in high-fat-fed animals, as assessed by a homologous in vitro bioassay. Chromatofocusing of pituitary extracts yielded multiple LH charge isoforms; a trend towards decreased abundance of more basic isoforms (pH 9.99-9.0) was apparent in rats fed with the control diet for 180 days but not in those that were fed the diet enriched in saturated fat. It is concluded that long-term high-fat feeding alters the function of the pituitary-testicular axis, resulting in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The alterations in LH function found in these animals might be subserved by changes in hypothalamic GnRH output and/or sustained gonadotrope exposure to an altered sex steroid hormone milieu, representing a distinctly different regulatory mechanism whereby the pituitary attempts to counterbalance the effects of long-term obesity on reproductive function. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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