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Colombini D.,Research Unit Ergonomics of Posture and Movement | Occhipinti E.,Research Unit Ergonomics of Posture and Movement
Work | Year: 2012

The OCRA method is the reference method chosen in ISO (ISO 11228-3) and CEN (EN 1005-5) standards regarding risk assessment and management of upper limbs repetitive movements and exertions. The method consists of two specific tools (OCRA index and OCRA checklist). In this paper special attention will be devoted to the procedures for the analysis of multiple repetitive tasks. When computing the OCRA index (checklist score) considering the presence of more than one repetitive task, a "traditional" procedure has been previously proposed. This approach, whose results could be defined as "time weighted average", seems to be appropriate when considering rotations among tasks that are performed almost once every hour. On the contrary, when rotation among repetitive tasks is less frequent the "time weighted average" approach could result into an underestimation of the exposure level. For those scenarios an alternative approach is based on a concept that the most stressful task is the minimum starting point. A peculiar procedure allows to exactly estimate the resulting index within this range of minimum to maximum values. It is possible to apply this approach also for job rotation with weekly or monthly or annual cycle typical of agriculture, supermarket, cleaning sectors. This paper shows criteria and results in two working situation: cleaning (weekly cycle) and packaging of fruit (annual cycle). © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source


Colombini D.,Research Unit Ergonomics of Posture and Movement | Occhipinti E.,Research Unit Ergonomics of Posture and Movement | Peluso R.,CESMEL | Montomoli L.,University of Siena
Work | Year: 2012

In August 2009, an international group was founded with the task of developing a "toolkit for MSD prevention" under the IEA and in collaboration with the World Health Organization. According to the ISO standard 11228 series and the new Draft ISO TR 12259 "Application document guides for the potential user", our group developed a preliminary "mapping" methodology of occupational hazards in the craft industry, supported by software (Excel®, free download on: www.epmresearch.org). The possible users of toolkits are: members of health and safety committees; health and safety representatives; line supervisors; foremen; workers; government representatives; health workers providing basic occupational health services; occupational health and safety specialists. The proposed methodology, using specific key enters and quick assessment criteria, allows a simple ergonomics hazards identification and risk estimation to be made. It is thus possible to decide for which occupational hazards a more exhaustive risk assessment will be necessary and which occupational consultant should be involved (occupational physician, safety engineer, industrial hygienist, etc.). The methodology has been applied in different situations of small and medium craftsmanship Italian enterprises: leather goods, food, technical dental work, production of artistic ceramics and stained glass, beekeeping activities. The results are synthetically reported and discussed in this paper. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source


Colombini D.,Research Unit Ergonomics of Posture and Movement | Occhipinti E.,Research Unit Ergonomics of Posture and Movement | Di Leone G.,National Health Unit
Work | Year: 2012

During the last Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA), Beijing, August 2009, an international group was founded aimed at developing a "toolkit for MSD prevention" within IEA and in collaboration with World Health Organization (WHO). Possible users of toolkits are: members of health and safety committees, health and safety representatives, line supervisors; labor inspectors; health workers implementing basic occupational health services; occupational health and safety specialists. According to ISO standard 11228 series and the new Draft CD ISO 12259-2009: Application document guides for the potential user, a computer software ( in Excel®) was create dealing with hazard "mapping" in handicraft The proposed methodology, using specific key enters and quick assessment criteria, allows a simple ergonomics hazard identification and risk estimation. Thus it makes possible to decide for which professional hazards a more exhaustive risk assessment will be necessary and which professional consultant should be involved (occupational physician, safety engineer, industrial hygienist, etc.). © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source


Occhipinti E.,Research Unit Ergonomics of Posture and Movement | Colombini D.,Research Unit Ergonomics of Posture and Movement
Work | Year: 2012

When studying WMSDs, several determinants and their interrelationship are considered as relevant. Hence the necessity of an "holistic" approach to prevention, especially when preparing technical rules and strategic plans. There is a strong request, from OSH agencies and operators, for developing "simple" tools for risk assessment and management. In this context WHO asked IEA to develop a "Toolkit for WMSD prevention". The paper presents one of the main contribution to this WHO project, focused on selecting tools at different level for hazard identification, risk estimation and management. Proposals are based on two essential criteria: Acting on a step-by-step approach; Taking into account the presence of multiple influencing factors. The proposals consider: A Basic Step devoted to hazard identification by operative "key-enter" questions, that can be operated also by non-experts. A First Step, (quick assessment), for identifying 3 possible conditions: acceptable; high risk present; more detailed analysis (via tools presented at second step) necessary. This step can be operated by non-experts with only some specific training. A Second Step, where recognized (i.e. from international standards or guidelines) tools for risk estimation are used. This step can be operated only by persons with some specific training. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

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